vivaaH = MARRIAGE: Backgrounder & 8 Types of vEDik vivaaH
sNskaar = veDik rites and ritutal needed in birth-death cycle of an aatma (soul) sNskaar: veDik rites and ritutal needed in birth-death cycle of an aatma (soul) with a human body
Posted by Champaklal Dajibhai Mistry. Last updated on May 21, 2005.




om guru bRH`myE nmH...


On this planet earth and in the universe we humans know about, among humans the entire process of creating the male-female union to live together is primarily meant for:

  • upholding the eternal cylce of creation,

  • providing sustenance of all that is created and

  • keeping continuity of the cyclic re-creation of all that has been created and will be created .

The process of making and sustaining this union in a society is extensively detailed in the texts of vED = SCIENCES OF CREATION AND LIFE....

In veD and veDik lifestyle, the process by which a male-female union is made, sanctified and lived with acceptance among veDik communal societies is called vivaaH.

In the vivaaH process of this union of a male human and a female human, a "bride" is the female human participant in the vivaaH and a "bridegroom" is the male human participant in vivaaH.

After the vivaaH ceremony is performed the bride becomes wife and bridegroom becomes husband in a vivaaH.

This pair of wife and husband set up their own household as per the rules and regulations prescribed in vED and therefore they are called householders or gRUHs`TH. The wife is called gRUHiANii meaning the mistress of a household and the husband is called gRUHiAn meaning the master of a household.And the aaSHRm (life stage) they live in is called gRUHsth-aaSHRm

In cultures and civilizations which does not practice veDik lifestyle, the male-female human union is made, sanctified and lived with acceptance as per the customs, traditions and belief system of the particular culutre.

In English language, which is the most common means of communications between various cultures and civilization in the 21 century, vivaaH is called MARRIAGE....The detailed explanation of the word vivaaH and marriage is in the separate article "WHAT IS vivaaH = MARRIAGE?" on the vED page under the same sub-category of sNskaar as this article on this knowledge-sharing PVAF web site.

As per vEDik texts, in vEDik lifestyle, the following 8 forms or types of vivaaH are described:

  1. bRH`maa vivaaH
  2. aaARsh vivaaH
  3. pRaajaapt`y vivaaH
  4. DEEv vivaaH
  5. gaaNDHARv vivaaH
  6. aasur vivaaH
  7. raaaKSHs vivaaH
  8. pEEshaach vivaaH

Only in 2 forms of vivaaH as noted above there is exchange of any compensation of wealth for either of the bride or bridegroom.

In vED texts, of the 8 forms of vivaaH, bRH`maa vivaaH is the most DHARmik meaning most sacred as it follows the rules and regulations of DHARm. It is thus the most moral and ethical union as the union is based on total free will including the consents of both sets of parents and following the rules of arranging and performing vivaaH in conformance to DHARm-shaas`TR and vED.

As per veD texts, paeeshaach vivaaH is regarded as the most aDHaaARmik (unlawful and morally wrong) type of vivaaH. All of these types of vivaaH are said to occur among humanity in all times in all places as per veD knowledge.

The above 8 forms of vivaaH is also conformed to by the spt-rushio (seven mind-born sons of pRjaapti bRH`maa who created the rest of the creations along with pRjaapti bRH`maa to all the 33 kror (330 million) DEvtaao (gods and goddesses) and all creations who are not in the categories of animals, plants and other sub-living beings.

The prime difference in case of vivaaH among rushio and DEvtaao is that the familial lineage limitations imposed for humans is not waived by DHARm. The familial limitations in humans is that vivaaH between a man and a woman is not allowed between the children of blood relations extending to 7 generations in the familial lineage of bride or bridegroom's father and 5 generations lineage of bride or bridegroom's mother.


Each of the above 8 types of vivaaH is defined by the method by which the ceremony of vivaaH is brought about between a bride and a bride-groom and is described below.

  1. bRH`maa vivaaH:

    A vivaaH is called bRH`maa vivaaH when the ceremony for vivaaH is performed after the free will and consent is put in place of all from the families of bride and bridegroom.
  2. aaARSH vivaaH:

    A vivaaH is called aaARSH vivaaH when the ceremony for vivaaH is performed with or without full the consent of either the bride or the bridegroom. Under this type, vivaaH could even have been forced on the parents of the bride with a condition that the bridegroom gives an agreed amount of wealth to bride's father.
  3. pRaajaapt`y vivaaH:

    A vivaaH is called pRaajaapt`y vivaaH when the ceremony for vivaaH is performed after the bride is agreed to be given to a bridegroom who has requested for the hand of the bride in the belief that it is bridegroom's DHARm or moral duty and obligation as per rules and regulations of DHARm to take the woman as a wife during the current life journey.
  4. DEEv vivaaH:

    The ceremony for DEEv vivaaH is performed after a bride is given to a bRaaHmAN who is performing a yGN.

    A bRaaHmAN is a person who is well versed in the study of veD and lives his life based on vED and DHARm....and who specializes in performing some particular veDik vidhio (rites and rituals). A bRaaHmAN must have proficiency in performing a veDik yGN or vidhi; otherwise the bRaaHmAN should not undertake the task. A bRaaHmAN who undertakes veDik tasks without having proficiency earns paap (sins or demerits) of which appropriate unhappy kARm-fl will be experienced in lives to come.

    The giving of bride to a bRaaHmAN under DEEv vivaaH could be for various purposes such as:
    1. DKSHiANaa (compensation for services) or Daan which is considered a sacred form of performing a charity and/or
    2. a benevolent kARm or some personal pledge made by the parents of a bride in performing a vRt (an promise of an offering made to a daev (god) or daevii (goddess) for realizing a personal wish), and/or
    3. for any veDik kaaARmik reason.

    A bRaaHmAN is preferred as he is considered to be of the highest vARAN (division of humanity) of existence of a human form. A true bRaaHmAN is a person of vED knowledge living a vEDik lifestyle and who does not have any personal and selfish attachment to worldly kARm which are self-serving and profit-making kARm.

    The preceding personal characteristics of a bRaaHmAN is considered to be the human manifestation of creator bRH`m-self with pre-dominant sttv-gun.

    The other 3 vARAN or functional categories of human existence such as vaeeSH`y, KSHTRiy and shuDRR or the -mixed-vARAN procreations of these 4 vARAN are inferred as non-sttvik or predominant in rajas-gun and tms-gun kARm.

  5. gaaNDHARv vivaaH:

    Under aaARSH vivaaH a bride and bridegroom who are mutually in love with each other and wishes that love to last for ever through vivaaH.
  6. aasur vivaaH:

    Under aaARSH vivaaH payment of agreed wealth by the bridegroom to the bride's father is made and the vivaaH is without the consent of the bride.
  7. raaaKSHs vivaaH:

    Under aaARSH vivaaH forceful abduction of a bride without the consent of bride's and/or her parent's is carried out by the bridegroom for the purpose of vivaaH.
  8. pEEshaach vivaaH:

    pEEshaach vivaaH a bridegroom forcefully marries a bride without bride's consent when the bride is sleeping or is unconscious.

The above compilation from
will be expanded and/or edited for
more knowledge
better understanding
as more knowledge is compiled
through the evergreen eternal
study of vED at PVAF....

The present compilations is through the study of available original sNskRUt veD texts and their English translations supplemented with the study of available gujraati and Hindi translations thereof by SRii chmpklaal Daajibhaai miisTRii....who offers eternal pRANaam and acknowledge his eternal debt to all creations from grandfather of all creations, pRjaapti bRH`maa, to the blade of grass....all those who have relayed the vED knowledge to all creations since the creation started about 2.2 billion years ago in this creation cycle called klp of a total of 4.32 billion years.....with a prayer to guru bRH`myE nmH.... tt st....
om paaM shaaNtM
om shaanti shaanti shaanti....

Original posting: May 21, 2005

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