yog: 8-angyog: 2nd ang = niyam practice = Parts 26-26-5-1
Yog(Yoga): Brings health welfare & prosperity to Life
Posted by Champaklal Dajibhai Mistry. Last updated on January 26, 2004.

.........science of
yog
 
is 
the way
 
to know
 oneself...............

naarD-muni asks his brother snk-muni:

"By what vedik vidhi (holy rite)
is yog attained by a yogi
and
how yog leads to moKSH?"


snk-muni's
sharing of science of yog in Parts 1 to 23 is from  slok 1.33.26-27, 28-30, 31, 34, 35, 42, 38-40, 45-46, 47, 48/50, 49/52, 51, 54-55, 56-57, 58-59, 60-62, 63, 65, 66/68, 69,70-72, 1.33.26-27, 28-30, 31, 34, 35, 42, 38-40, 45-46, 47, 48/50, 49/52, 51, 54-55, 56-57, 58-59, 60-62, 63, 65, 66/68, 69, 70-72, 73-74,75, 76, 77, 78, 79-82, 83, 84, 85-86, 87, 88, 89-96, 97-99, 100-108 from naarD puraaAN.


Parts 1 to 24 and 25 to 25-7 are posted separately on the yog section of the veD page of this PVAF website.

Parts 1 to 24 explains the basics meaning of yog process and practice.

The parts 21 to 24 are repeated hereunder to have a continuity from Parts 1 to 24. Parts 21 to 24 explains maayaa-shk`ti and that explanation leads to the understanding and practice of the 1st ang called yam
of 8-ang yog practice.

Parts 25 to 25-7 explains
 yam
which is the 1st ang of 8-ang yog

Part 25-7 is repeated at the start of Part 26 to have a continuity from the 1st ang called
yam

of the 8-ang yog practice.

This presentation contains
Parts 26 to 26-5-1
 which explains
niyam
which is the 2nd ang of 8-ang yog.  


PART 21

"The universe
 appears to be of diverse kinds
 to
 those who are devoid of
 purna gnaan
(complete and perfect knowledge which is knowledge that brhmah is everything and
 one's body is not one's "I" but one's "I" is one's aatmaa and not the body).

 To those
 endowed with
 param gnaan,
(highest knowledge which is knowledge that brhmah is everything and
 one's body is not one's "I" but one's "I" is one's aatmaa and not the body).
 it (the universe)
 is
 one with
 param brhmah.
(supreme, second to none, the only one brhmah)

People perceive
 difference in 
param aatmaa (=param brhmah)
 due to
 maayaa
 
(a primary shakti of nirgun brhmah which has the brhmah-ordained function to hide the true identity of brhmah from all creations with a shakti called aavaraN and also to make all creations see multiplicity in brhmah through a shakti of vikshep

 of the wielder of
 maayaa
 (wielder of maayaa is param brhmah).

 Hence a
  mumukshu
(one who desires moksh meaning liberation from saNsaar which is 
worldly existence of cycles of birth and death full of
  sukh ( joy and happiness) followed by dukh ( pain and sorrow
))"
 should forsake
 maayaa
 through
 yogik shakti 
(power of yog)."


PART 22

"maayaa
(a primary shakti of nirgun brhmah which has the brhmah-ordained function to hide the true identity of brhmah from all creations with a shakti called aavaraN and also to make all creations see multiplicity in brhmah through a shakti of vikshep
 is
 neither
 of the form of
 asat
 
(creations created by brhmah which dies after a life cycle
 upon receipt of karma-phal for that life cycle and
 are reborn through
 nitya-laya, naimmittik-laya, praakrt-laya and aatyantik-laya
la
ya
is re-absorption into the creator
 for rebirth to receive one's remanant karma-phal.
 Re-absorption is into brahmaa-dev for nitya and naimittik laya
 and into brhmah for praakrt and aatyantik laya). 

 nor
 of the form of
 sat
 
(shakti of brhmah which are eternal and are not affected by cycles of 
 nitya-laya, naimmittik-laya, praakrt-laya and aatyantik-laya
la
ya
is re-absorption into the creator
 for rebirth to receive one's remanant karma-phal.
 Re-absorption is into brahmaa-dev for nitya and naimittik laya
 and into brhmah for praakrt and aatyantik laya
Examples are gnaan and chaitanya (consciousness) which are brhmah-self)

 nor
 maayaa 
is of the form of both (sat or asat).

 Hence
 maayaa
 should be understood as
 being
 anirdeshya 
(that which can not be specified, defined, described, explained or compared
 for its form or nature or state of being)
.

 maayaa
 gives the idea and perception of
dvuNdvuN 
(delusion of perceived difference between brhmah and what is created by brhmah or
 the delusion of perceived difference between KSHetra
 
which is a field or domain or physical body of a living being in which
  an aatmaa in an embodied state can perform karma and
 KSHetragna which s the soul or  jiv or individual aatmaa embodied by karma-phal
  in a body of a living being which is made of
 the karma-phal to be partaken or received in that life journey)
."

 


PART 23

"It is
 maayaa
 that is understood by the word
 agnaan
(non-knowledge which deludes one in believing that
  brhmah is separate from everything in the universe
 and that one's "I" is one's body and hides the truth that from the gnaan that
 one's "I" is one's aatmaa and not the body).
.
 Hence only those
 who have conquered
 maayaa
 
(a primary shakti of nirgun brhmah which has the brhmah-ordained function to hide the true identity of brhmah from all creations with a shakti called aavaraN and also to make all creations see multiplicity in brhmah through a shakti of vikshep

 can have 
mukti
 
(release, liberation, deliverance, freedom)
 
from
 agnaan.

 param sanaatan brhmah
 
(supreme and eternal brhmah)
is denoted by the word
 gnaan
(knowledge that brhmah is everything and
 one's body is not one's "I" but one's "I" is one's aatmaa and not the body).

Indeed
 param aatmaa
(supreme, second to none, the only one aatmaa = brhmah)
 shines continuously
 in the hearts of
 those endowed with
 gnaan.

A yogi
 must destroy
 agnaan
 through
 yog.

 yog
 is achieved through
 ashta-ang
( eight limbs or auxiliary means or expedient).
 I shall mention them factually. "


PART 24

"ashta-ang
( eight limbs or auxiliary means or expedient).
of yog are:

yam
(in the practice of yog, the practice of restraining, controlling, curbing karma
through self control of indriyo (senses) and manas (mind), buddhi, and ahankaar
and with application the rules of dharma
so as to live only by dharma)

niyam
(in the practice of yog, the practice of voluntary and self-imposed or imposed by ved
through vedik shastra and vidhio (rites) in daily life
as per dharma of one's varNa and aashram)

aasan
(in the practice of yog, the practice of body postures assumed in performing
niyam, praaNaayaam, dhaarNaa and samaadhi
as outlined by ved through vedik shastra and vidhio (rites)
as physical bodily aid to the attainment of respective activity)

praaNaayaam
(in the practice of yog, the practice of breath control and flow of
praan
(vital energy systems which empowers all bodily functions)
through idaa and pingalaa channels which
lie on the left and right of sushumaN (central nervous system)
during performing
niyam, aasan, dhaarNaa
and samaadhi
to create focused bhakti (worship) of
a dev or brhmah with whom one is trying to achieve yog with)

pratyaahaar
(in the practice of yog, the practice of subduing
the powers and functions of ten indriyo (senses) to
minimum necessary for attaining yog
and withdrawing the ten indriyo (senses) from
their field of operation so as to
control manas (mind) to enable the manas to focus on
niyam, aasan, praaNaayaam, dhaarNaa and samaadhi
being performed and thus aid attainment of yog)

dhaaraNaa
(in the practice of yog, retention of and staying
in the mode of pratyaahaar )

dhyaan
(in the practice of yog, after achieving pratyaahaar,
reflecting, thinking, contemplating
with focus and concentration
what is perceived by indriyo (senses) and manas (mind)
for relating all perceptions to brhmah
and for obtaining divine intuition or discernment of the gnaan of
the satya (Truth) that brhmah is everything)

samaadhi
(in the practice of yog, deep mode of dhyaan with focus on
integrating and merging all perceptions,
including one's own aatmaa (soul)
into one object only, that is, brhmah).

I shall briefly tell
the natural constituents of these
ashta-ang
( eight limbs or auxiliary means or expedient)
of yog
in the order given above."



PART 25-7

anusuuyaa
is abandonment of
ansuuyataa
which is
severe heart-burn and mental agony
that
one suffers on seeing
others superior to him
in wealth and other worldly possessions.

arey naarad,
para-gnaani
(most excellent among enlightened one),
yam (practice) have thus been briefly recited.
Now I shall also recite
niyam.
Listen.


PART 26

"niyam
(practice components)
are
tapas
(performance of penance),
svaadhyay
(self- study of ved to understand one as aatmaa and not the body)
santosh
(desireless contentment with what one obtains through
daivya or bhaagya (fate or destiny)),

shauch
(purification of a living being's existence
 as a body and body's empowering entity called aatmaa (soul)),

hari-puujaa
(
puujaa or worship of brhmah by thought, words and karma),
and
sandhyaa praathnaa
(prayers to brhmah 3 times a day - morning, noon and evening)"

(details of each niyam will be explained in the following
sub-parts of Part 26)


PART 26-1

(first karma in the practice of niyam is)

"tapas1
is
thorough which
a body is
emaciated
through
chandraayaN1 and others1.

It is an excellent means of yog."

NOTE 1 EXPLANATION: practice of tapas means living a lifestyle whereby all karma in life that are not required to realize an objective are stopped and only karma that will realize the objective are performed. This usually means forgoing daily life activities which gives pleasures, which produces wealth for sustenance of oneself and one's family and restraining the 2 basic instincts of food, sleep to the minimum possible to sustain one's body alive. The third and fourth instinct of procreation and fear are restrained during tapas. This in turn means one lives a very basic, simple and austere lifestyle to create mild to extreme levels of "hardships" for the body's well-being and health. This way the real "I" which is aatmaa (soul) is made to prevail over its body which the aatmaa only needs and uses for its embodiment as a human being. This leads to knowledge of one's aatmaa. Examples of tapas mode activities are as follows:

  • One may only take food enough for body to stay alive and could end of looking totally emaciated.

  • One may stand on one foot during tapas.

  • One may stay submerged to the neck in water.

  • One may stay in extreme heat and cold environments without any protection.

  • One may even stop taking food and live on water only and then further giving up even water and living on air only as food. This is a trial of bearing with hunger and thirst.

  • One may remain in some posture which is hurtful to the body over extended time period.

  • One may go into kaastha-mauna state meaning a state devoid of all expressions of life such as speaking, seeing, hearing, having feeling, having emotions, etc.


PART 26-2

(second karma in the practice of niyam is)

"svaadhyaay
is
jap of
pranav, mantra and mahaa-vaakya.

jap
is of three kinds:
vaachik, upaaMsu and maanas."

(all of the above terms will be explained in the following sub-parts)


PART 26-2-1

"jap1
 is of
 praNav (om),2
 upnishad
3 passages,
 12-syllabled or 8-syllabled mantra
4
 and
 of collection of
 mahaavaaky
5

jap1
 of above  is called
 svaadhyaay.

 jap
 is an excellent means of yog.
 The foolish one who abandons
 svaadhyaay
 does not achieve
 yogik shakti
(power)." 

EXPLANATION OF 1:  

jap :

  1. jap is a practice of repeating prayers to a dev or devi one is invoking. This is either done in an undertone or silently in one mind. 

  2. jap is different from normal mode of praying because the prayer is repeated a number of times as prescribed by shaastra or as pledged by oneself. The practice of jap facilitates by repetitions to focus on the dev or devi to propitiate the dev or devi for a desired objective. 

  3. Some of the words in the prayers in a jap practice are om, a passage from ved or a mantra or a mahaa-vaakya explained below. 

  4. In jap a maalaa (rosary) is also used to count or keep track of the repetitions. One may perform jap as part of a vrat or vow for achieving desired wish with the help of a dev or devi. In such cases a person promises that say a thousand jap will be performed to realize the wish or after realizing the wish.

EXPLANATION OF 2:  

praNav = om: 

  1. om is the first creation as shabda (word) created in the scheme of creation of the universe. 

  2. om  is the most sacred word and represents the creator brhmah-self.
      

  3. om as brhmah is also prayed to as a shakti or naam or ruup of brhmah.

  4. om is described in upnishad as unknowable, unspeakable, into which the entire universes of creation exists and revolves in repeated eternal cycles of creation and as duality of existence as brhmah but separate from brhmah when created. 

  5. brahmaa-dev when first created started speaking om and prayed with and to om to find out who he was and what he was supposed to do. 

  6. om is used as follows in vedik lifestyle:

  • om is used as a tool to perform jap in the practice of yog.

  • om is used as a focus point in any meditation or practice of 8-ang yog starting from the anga (limbs):

    - dhaaraNaa which is retention of and staying in the mode of pratyaahaar ;

    - after achieving pratyaahaar in the practice of dhyaan which is reflecting, thinking, contemplating with focus and concentration what is perceived by indriyo (senses) and manas (mind) for relating all perceptions to brhmah and for obtaining divine intuition or discernment of the gnaan of the satya (Truth) that brhmah is everything; and
     
    - samaadhi
    (in the practice of yog, deep mode of dhyaan with focus on
    integrating and merging all perceptions, including one's own aatmaa (soul)
    into one object only, that is, brhmah.

  • In most of the mantra or prayers to commence prayers and also to end the mantra or prayer.
     

  • Used as heading to a writing as a prayer and propitiating brhmah.

  • Used as a symbol in drawing yantra or sacred diagrams to signify presence of brhmah.

  • In upnishad om is eulogized as practically all the created entities in the universe.

  • In ved om broken down as three syllables a, u, m - each syllable is used as representation of three states of existence of an embodied  aatmaa of living being: 1. as vaishvaanar in awake state,
    2. as taijas in dream state and
    3. as pragnaa in sushupti (deep sleep) state.

  • From grammatical sense, om is used as a particle om implies solemn affirmation or respectful agreement or assent or acceptance or command or auspiciousness or removal and warding of some obstacles.

  • As a pranav, om broken down into 3 syllables a, u, m - each syllable represents the united and co-existing trinity of the 3 creating shaktio of mahaa-maayaa or prakruti or pradhaan
    1. rajas-gun shakti in the form of brahmaa-dev:
    2. satya-gun shakti in the form of vishnu-dev: and
    3. tamas-gun shakti in the form of shiv-dev.  

 

EXPLANATION OF 3:  

upnishad:

  1. upnishad is the collection of shruti and smruti  complied in writing form in sanskrit by rushio and munio (sages) which explains the supreme and only one creator of this universes known as brhmah mentioned in  ved. shruti (revelations by intuition. smruti is remembrances of revelation passed down from brahmaa-dev to all his creations.

  2. There are 18 major upnishad texts out of a total of 108 upnishad texts known to exist.

EXPLANATION OF 4:  

mantra

  1. A mantra is a passage, phrase, aphorism or collection of words from ved which is used for: 

    a)    a prayer or

    b)    in any 8-ang (limb) of yog practice as a jap or starting from the anga (limbs)

    - dhaaraNaa which is retention of and staying in the mode of pratyaahaar ;

    - after achieving pratyaahaar in the practice of dhyaan which is reflecting, thinking, contemplating with focus and concentration what is perceived by indriyo (senses) and manas (mind) for relating all perceptions to brhmah and for obtaining divine intuition or discernment of the gnaan of the satya (Truth) that brhmah is everything; and
     
    - samaadhi
    (in the practice of yog, deep mode of dhyaan with focus on
    integrating and merging all perceptions, including one's own aatmaa (soul)
    into one object only, that is, brhmah.

    c)   a spell  to create, sustain or destroy a creation.

    d)   a spell to create a illusion.

    e)   a formulae to propitiate any dev or devi to fulfill a command or a desire. Such a mantra is usually given by a dev or a devi or a guru to a person as a gift or for a purpose.

    f)    as a set of words given by a guru to a student at the initiation ceremony for a student to start ved study. 

  2. A mantra is of three types or forms:

    a)   ruch or rik is it has metric scale in it and is intended to be recited loudly;

    b)   saaman if it has metric scale and is to be chanted or sung loudly.    

    c)   yajus if it is in prose form and is intended to be spoken in a low voice or tone

  3. mantra as a collective are those parts of ved which inlcudes samhitaa but are different from braahmaNaa
         

EXPLANATION OF 5:  

mHaavaak`y

  1. A mHaa-vaak`y is literally great sentences or aphorism in veD to convey the relationship of bRH`m to aat`maa (soul) which have embodied existence as living beings and under the effect of maayaa. The effect of maayaa prevents an embodied aat`maa to know bRH`m. The 4 mHaa-vaak`y are:

    a)  tt tvm asi = you are that   ( "you" = embodied aat`maa as a living being and "that" = brhmah)

    b)  aHm bRH`m asi = I am bRH`m   ("I" = the embodied aat`maa as a living being)

    c)   ahm aat`maa bRH`m = my aat`maa is bRH`m ("my" = the living being) 

    d)  pRGNaanM bRH`m = bRH`m is pRGNaa    (pRGNaa is bRH`m's chaeetn`y shk`ti (power) which empowers all functions in all living or non-living creations and animates or creations to exhibit its ordained functions. Without chaitaniya all creations starting from mHaa-maayaa becomes jD or inert. chaeetn`y is unborn, eternal, un-taintable, pervades the entire creation and exist in various forms such as puRuSH, chaetn, aNtkrAN and aat`maa which is the reflection of chaeetn`y in pRkRUti.


PART 26-2-2

"even without
 yog,
 mankind's paap (sins)
 are destroyed through
 svaadhyaay.
 On being propitiated through
 svaadhyaay
 the devo become delighted. "

PART 26-2-3

"japa is of 3 types:

vaachik,
 
(expressed by words of mouth, oral)
 upaaMshu,
(expressed through mumbling and are indistinct to hearing)
 and
 maanas
 
(conceived only in manas or mind).

 The latter ones in these three
 are
 better than the earlier ones."

(vaachik, upaaMsu and maanas forms of jap will be described in the next talks)


PART 26-2-4

"jap
 is called
 vaachik
 if mantra of jap
 is spoken well
 by making the syllables and words articulated clearly.
 vaachik jap
 grants the benefits of all yagna." 

(upaaMsu and maanas forms of jap will be described in the next talks)


PART 26-2-5

"jap
 is called
upaaMshu
if mantra of jap
is spoken such that
 the worlds of mantra are
 only slightly distinct from one another
 (means words cannot be distinguished
 from each other distinctly).

upaaMshu jap
 is twice more beneficial than
  vaachik jap."


PART 26-2-6

"jap
 is called
maanas
if chint
 
(thinking, reasoning, reflecting and meditating upon to understand its meaning)
 is done over each of
 the syllables
 in mantra of jap.

maanas jap
 grants all 
yogik achievements."


PART 26-2-6

"devo
 
becomes delighted with
 one
 who eulogizes continuously through
 jap.

Hence
 one who is richly endowed with
 the practice of
 
svaadhyaay
 
realizes all his desires."


PART 26-3

(third karma in the practice of niyam is)

santosh
is
 satisfaction
 with obtaining
 what comes
 spontaneously.

asantuSHt
 
(unsatisfied)
 person
 does not get
 sukh
 
(happiness, joy, delight, pleasure)
 anywhere."


PART 26-3-1

"Never is
 one
 satisfied by the enjoyment of
 sukh
 
(happiness, joy, delight, pleasure)
 of
 kaam
 
(wish, desire, affection, love,
 desire for sensual enjoyments and carnal gratification, lust)
.

 A kaami's 
(a person with wish, desire, affection, love,
 desire for sensual enjoyments and carnal gratification, lust)

needs
 always keeps on increasing
 saying
"When will I get more than this?"

Hence,
 one should give up
 kaam
 that causes
 the wasting away of
 the body.

 One
 should be contented
 with
 effortless spontaneous
 acquisitions
 and
 be absorbed in
 dharma.


PART 26-4

(third karma in the practice of niyam is)

"shauch
(purification of a living being's existence
 as a body and body's empowering entity called aatmaa (soul))

is of
 two types
 as differentiated by its
 external and internal
 purification methodologies.

 The external
 
shauch
 is through clay1 and water1.

The internal
 
shauch
 is purity of bhaav
(feelings, emotions, sentiments, love, affection, attachment,
 conduct, behaviour, senses)
." 

EXPLANATION OF 1:

The external cleaning of the body of a living being with clay and water signifies the maintenance of external hygiene for overall good health and well-being of a living being. The use of clay and water is just symbolic and any other materials that can clean a body and maintain it healthy are meant to be used as per the customs and traditions of a locale, time and availability of living resources. Water is a universally common natural resource used by mankind. Clay has been mentioned here as a lot of cultures used natural clay for body cleaning and body invigorating purposes as used in spas and health resorts in current times. Instead of clay soaps, oils, special herbal preparations and special mud or clay preparations are also used by various civilizations from times immemorial.


PART 26-4-1

"The different kinds of
 yagna1
  performed by those
 who are devoid of
 internal  
shauch,
 do not bear fruit
 like the oblations poured
 on ashes in a
 yagna.

All
 vidhio
 
(vedik rites and ceremonies as prescribe by ved and shaastra)
 of those
 who are devoid of
 bhaav 
shauch
 
(purity of feelings, emotions, sentiments, love, affection, attachment)
 conduct, behaviour, senses)
 are futile.

 Hence,
 one should forsake 
 raag
 
(passionate attachment)
 and
 similar bhaav
and be
 sukhi 
(happy and joyous). "

EXPLANATION OF 1: : "yagna"See Sanskrit Glossary on this web site


PART 26-4-2

"A man whose
 aatmaa
(soul)
 is
 defiled
 is
 one similar to a
 chaandaal.1

 Though such a person
might have externally washed his/her body
 with ten million pot-full of water
 and
 thousands of bahaar of clay.
 (1 bhaar = 20 tula)

If a person devoid of
 internal
shauch 
becomes engaged in
worship of 
dev or devi,
 then such a person
 taints
 the character and essence of that
 dev or devi
 and
 falls into
 narak (hell).

EXPLANATION OF 1: chaaNdaal

  1. a person outcast from all varna because of non-compliance to sva-dharma and varna-dharma by himself and by his parents.

  2. chaandaal persons are of 3 types as defined in naarad puraan:

    a)   a person born of a unmarried virgin girl;

    b)   a person born of
    sagotra meaning from a marriage between a man and a woman of same gotra or lineage. sagotra rule is applied to any person on father's ancestry for six previous generations and five generations of ancestry on mother's side. Marriage within this spectrum of father's and mother's gotra is not recommended by ved and shaastra.

    c)    a person born of a
    sudra father and a braahman mother.   


PART 26-4-3

"A person
 who is devoid of
 internal
shauch 
but
 strives for
 external
shauch
 
does not attain
 a-vyakulataa
 
(non-agitated or non-perplexed or non-bewildered or non-distracted or non- alarmed or non-troubled or non-frightened or not fully overtaken by)
 like a decorated liquor pot1 .

tirtho2
 do not
 pavitrii-kru 
(make one loose all one's paap and thus make pure) 
 those who perform
 yaatra3
  without
 mano-bhav
shauch,
(purification of mind and mind's creation of all
 feelings, emotions, sentiments, love, affection, attachment,  conduct, behaviour)

 just as
 a river cannot purify
 a liquor pot.1

EXPLANATION OF 1:

This is a simile explanation. Liquor is regarded as extremely a paapi (sinful) and duushta (evil) item in creation. Any liquor when consumed by a living being agitates all its senses to the point of taking over all its senses to make the living being behave irrationally and even adharmikally. Just because a liquor is stored in a nicely decorated pot does not mean it is a non-evil item and its inherent properties will not affect a living being when consumed. After consuming liquor a living being becomes vyaakul (opposite of a-vyaakultaa) meaning agitated, perplexed, bewildered, distracted, alarmed, troubled, frightened and fully taken over by liquor to prevent having reasoned and rational behaviour. 

Similarly a river with all its water cannot purify a liquor pot which contains liquor. This again refers to the difference between external and internal shauch.

 

EXPLANATION OF 2: tirth (plural tirtho)

  1. A tirth is a place such as a mandir (temple) or any natural or man-made structure, or a lake or a river, or a tree or mountain or a natural creation, or a man made or natural shiv-ling or..... which is designated as pavitra or holy by an brhmah or dev or devi or by age old folk lores. 

  2. A tirth is ordained with shakti (power) by brhmah or any dev or devi that could cure illnesses or granting wishes or propitiating whatever one wishes with certain prescribed methods such as taking a dip in the lake or river or perfroming a vrat (vow) or performing tapasya (penance). 

  3. Some tirtho, such as gangaa river,  have the ordained shakti to mitigate or destroy one's paap (sin) when visited or touched or seen.

  4. At some tirtho by perfroming vedik vidhio (rites and ceremonies) such as SShraaDdh one's ancestors are released from their dukh (pain and sorrow) or propitiated. 

  5. During visit to a tirth, one has to perform certain definite karma in a definite manner to realize the proclaimed benefit of visiting the tirth. Such karma are prescribed in detail by the ordaining entity, 
      

  6. A tirth is also a place as prescribed in ved and shaastra that one can visit after taking a vrat or vow or to perform tapasya in order to propitiate brhmah or a dev or devi. For example kaashi has been proclaimed as a tirth for such purposes in all puraano. kaashi was originally established by vishnu-dev who then given to shiv-dev.
     

  7. A tirth is also a place which has been named as a pavitra (holy) place because of the stay in that place by a rushi or muni or saint. Such a place is visited by the followers of the person to whom the place belonged in the wish and hope that the visit will bestow on the visitors good fortune.

  8. A place is classified as a tirth if some historic event that upheld dharma occurred in that place. For example: kurukshetra is a tirth where the war between kauravo and paandavo took place enabling vishnu-dev' eighth avataar of krishna to destroy 1.7 billion paapi peoples who were threatening destruction of dharma...... 

  9. A place visited by any of the nine incarnations of vishnu-dev is also classified as tirth. Examples are the site visited by shree raam in search of his wife sitaa-devi, or mathuraa of krishna where raas with gopio was played....

  10. In ved, shaastra, puraano and itihaas numerous tirtho are mentioned for empowering any person to visit the tirth to absolve oneself of one's paap (sins) or to perfrom  SShraaDdh for one's ancestors, or to perform the end rites of a vrat one has taken to attain one's desires or to perform tapasya (penance) or to perform some of the 16 sanskaar (rites of passage of different states of growth including final death) a person has to perform between conception and death.    

EXPLANATION OF 3: yaatraa

  1. yaatraa means a journey or pilgrimage to a tirth (as explained above) for realizing the objectives one has in mind related to aadhyaatmaa of one's existence, meaning life's aspects dealing with one's aatmaa (soul) and aatmaa's life journeys in which karma-fal (fruits of karma) is incurred and accumulated.

  2. Mostly an yaatraa is undertaken to mitigate the karma-fal of one's paapi (sinful) karma. For this objective, places called tirth are visited and prescribed vedik vidhio (rites and ceremonies)  are performed in that tirth for mitigating the paapi karma-fal.

  3. yaatraa is also undertaken to complete one's vrat (vow) after realization of the objectives of the vrat. Again certain prescribed vedik vidhio (rites and ceremonies) are performed in that tirth and as per one's vrat. For example one may take a vrat to offer free food to 100 persons at a tirth or to do a pujaa or to donate cash or to do a fast or to be blessed by the deity of the tirth.

  4. yaatra is also undertaken just to accumulate punya (merits) by visits of a tirth. Such punya are described in ved, shaastra, puraano and itihaas.

  5. yaatra is also undertaken to places where dharmik or vedik festivities are historically celebrated on a regular but periodic basis such as annually or bi-annually or once in certain number of years. Example is kumbh-melaa which is celebrated at kaasi every 12 years or celebrations at some very old temples which are regarded as tirth.  

  6. In devi bhaagvat puraan, the best and most auspicious prayer to brhmah is only for a blessing for any and all resources available to be used for yaatra only in any state of embodied existence or incarnation of one's aatmaa in the eternal cycle of sansaar (worldly existence). This prayer empower one to use all resources and wealth one obtains in the sustenance of well-being for all creations and as sevaa (service) to brhmah. 

(explanation will be continued
of the third
karma in the practice of 
 
niyam
 which is
 
shauch
(purification of a living being's existence
 as a body and body's empowering entity called aatmaa (soul)
)

 


PART 26-4-4

"If a person
 desires with one's
 manas1 and buddhi1
 
for
 paapi vastu or vishay
 
(a worldly object. article, substance, matter, wealth, property, possession, subject pleasures of senses which is sinful) 
 even
 as he talks 
 on dharma,
 know him
 to be
mahaa-duSHtatam
 
(most wicked, ill-behaved, corrupt, guilty, culpable, low, vile, worthless)
 among
 maahaa-paaapio
 
(great sinners).

If those persons
 whose
 manas1
 are
 
shauch
 
(pure or purified)
 perform only their
param-dharma
 
(excellent duties),
 know that
 karma-fal
 
(fruits and benefit of karma)
 thereof is
 shaashvat
 
(imperishable)
 and a
 granter of
 sukh
 
(happiness, joy, delight, pleasure)."

EXPLANATION OF 1: :

  "manas" = mind  & "buddhi "= discriminative intellectual faculty to distinguish between dharmik and adharmik karma through  reservoir of knowledge of experience from many life cyclesSee Sanskrit Glossary on this web site for full understanding.


PART 26-4-5

(fifth and sixth karma in the practice of niyam is)

"hari-puujaa
is real if
 bhakti1
 to
 hari (= brhmah)
 is
 stabilized by means of
 sandhyaa1 praathnaa1
(prayers to brhmah 3 times a day - morning, noon and evening) 
consisting of 
puujaa,1 upaasanaa1, aaraadhanaa1
(worships),
 stuti1
 
(eulogies)
 and
 listening to and with 
 manas1
 (mentally),
 vaach1
 
(with words verbally)
 and
 prakrutyaa1 or  jaatit1 
(physically)."  


PART 26-4-5-1

EXPLANATION OF 1 in Part 26-4-5: performing bhakti through , sandhyaa praathnaa, puujaa, upaasanaa, aaraadhnaa, and stuti through manas, vaach and prakrutyaa-jaatit:

In ved and shaastra performing bhakti to a dev or devi or any creation is defined as endeavouring to become one with the entity to which bhakti is targeted at....for the simple reason one's aatmaa is our creator brhmah and our creator brhmah is everything in this universe and our creator brhmah is the empowering entity for everything that is created and everything that happens in this universe...Please see detailed explanation of bhakti in the SANSKRIT GLOSSARY in VED page on the web site...

In the Part 26-4-5 of learning about yog, brahmaa-dev who creates everything through bhakti to our creator brhmah teaches us that the performance is bhakti is facilitated by perfroming puujaa of brhmah together with praathnaa (prayer) at sandhyaa is the last part of the total practice of niyam which is the second karma to be performed in the 8-karma yog

puujaa is basically understanding what that being is and what the being does to whom one is performing puujaa to. For example in performing puujaa to vishnu-dev one understands that vishnu-dev has a body which has four arms, is dark blue in colour, has svaarstak mark on his chest, wears numerous ornaments, takes a number of vyuh (manifested forms and avataar (physical incarnations) to do various functions to create, maintain and re-absorb all creations for rebirth. In the four hands there are items such as gadaa, sudarshan chakra, which belongs to vishnu-dev only for his use in perfroming his designated functions. So knowing all this as part of performing puujaa one comes to understand all shakti (powers) of our creator brhmah manifesting as visnu-dev. So really one is understanding a small part of our creator brhmah

Then so that one can remember all that information about vishnu-dev as naam (name) and ruup (form) of various shaktio of our creator brhmah, in performing puujaa we also sing praises to each of the shaktio and this singing is called perfroming  stuti....And stuti can be done in three ways:

  • by manas meaning just mentally remembering all the shaktio and their functions or

  • by vaach meaning actually saying or singing these through a lot of poems, bhajan, aarti we have or 

  • by prakrutyaa or jaatit meaning relating all these shaktio to various physical phenomenon we know in ourselves or in all creations.

And these stuti should be performed through sandhyaa meaning praathnaa (prayers) at dawn, noon and evening times when our own physical daily routines change according to the circadian (related to movement of sun) rhythm of a day, month, season, year and yug. The repetition of 3 times a day is recommended to keep our focus in each time period that all that happens or all that one does in that time period is through the empowering shaktio of our creator brhmah...and all theses empowering shaktio are seen in various different forms of creation varying from our fellow humans to animals, plants, organisms, inanimate creations and all forces and phenomenon of nature such as rain, thunder, rotation and revolutions of everything in space and phenomenon of time and time's cyclic nature.....each and every one of these is our creator brhmah manifested in form of his infinite shaktio...

Perfroming puujaa through stuti at 3 sandhyaa as praathnaa is bhakti....all for the simple purpose of remembering continually that all that happens and all that is done is due to our aatmaa manifested as a form of our creator brhmah....     


PART 26-5-1

(Now learn about aasan which is the third daily karma limb in life for those who practice 8-ang (limb) karma-yog)

"One
 who has conquered one's
 indriyo
 
(5 senses of cognition of the universe and 5 senses of performance of karma in the universe and manas (mind) )
 and
 stabilized one's
 buddhi
 through the observance of
 yam and niyam
 
(as taught in the previous sections)
 should begin the practice of
 aasan
 duly.
 aasan
 is an excellent means
 of achieving
 yog

(In the PART 27 sanak-muni teaches about  
 
aasan
 
which is the  
 
3rd ang (limb) of the 8-aNg
yog
practice in life)



 

The above GNaan of yog which is True Knowledge
which reveals creator bRH`m
is supplemented by additional GNaan by the smRUti shared by naarD-muni in s`kND puraaAN.

Please perform your yaaTRaa to visit the additional
 PARTS 27 to 40
of yog practice
on this veD page on this PVAF web site....
and enrich your life by removing suffering due to unknown.....


 

---------------om tt st......................
---------------om shaanti shaanti .....................
---------------om bRH`mye nmH......................

----------------

 


 


Posted January 19, 2004:
This presentation will be revised continually as additional information is compiled from veD study at PVAF.

 

 



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