Posted by Champaklal Dajibhai Mistry on March 28, 2008



Hieronymus Bosch's The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things The painting is presented in a series of circular images. Four small circles, detailing "Death", "Judgement", "Hell", and "Glory", surround a larger circle in which the seven deadly sins are depicted: wrath at the bottom, then proceeding clockwise, envy, greed, gluttony, sloth, extravagance (later, lust), and pride. At the centre of the large circle, which is said to represent the eye of God, is a "pupil" in which Christ can be seen emerging from his tomb. Below this image is the Latin inscription Cave Cave Deus Videt meaning
"Beware, Beware, God is Watching", and implying that no sin goes unnoticed.
Original Sin?

According to traditional Christian theology, human beings have fallen from divine grace. Satan tempted Adam and Eve to defy the command of God not to eat of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Eve disobeyed. Original Sin was born. All descendants of Adam and Eve have fallen from a blissful state of innocence and communion with God.


The original seven deadly sins
for the followers of Christian Roman Catholic faith were drawn up by Pope Gregory the Great in the 6th century and later by Dante Alighieri in his epic poem The Divine Comedy. These sins are listed below with their corresponding holy virtues:

      SIN                HOLY VIRTUE
1.  sloth,                 diligence,
2.  envy,                 kindness
3.  gluttony,           abstinence,
4.  greed,               temperance,
5.  lust,                   chastity,
6.  wrath                 patience,
7.   pride                humility

As per Roman Catholic doctrine:

-        The new seven deadly sins are designed to make worshippers realize that their vices have an effect on others as well.

-        These mortal sins are a “grave violation of God’s law” and bring about “eternal death” if unrepented by the act of confession.

-        These sins are far more serious than venial sins, which impede a soul’s progress in the exercise of virtue and moral good. A venial sin (meaning "forgivable" sin) is a lesser sin that does not result in a complete separation from God and eternal damnation in Hell. A venial sin involves a "temporary loss of grace" from God. A venial sin meets at least one of the following 3 criteria:

      1. it does not concern a "grave matter"
      2. it is not committed with full knowledge,
      3. it is not committed with both deliberate
          and complete consent.

Each venial sin that one commits adds to the penance that one must do. Penance left undone during life converts to punishment in purgatory. A venial sin can be left unconfessed.

      Venial sins usually remain venial no matter how many one commits. They cannot "add up" to collectively constitute a mortal sin, except in certain cases of theft, where one steals a very small amount of money or goods many times.

The new seven deadly sins
are designed to make worshippers realize that their vices have an effect on others as well. The sins of today have a social resonance as well as an individual one, because of the great phenomenon of globalization, These new seven deadly sins are:

1. genetic modification,
2. carrying out experiments on humans,
3. polluting the environment,
4. causing social injustice,
5. causing poverty,
6. becoming obscenely wealthy and
7. taking drugs are all mortal sins.

Please click in the line outside this column to read the full story of this news from the Roman Catholic Vatican and also to enlighten yourself on the details of the original seven deadly sin concept of Roman Catholic faith among over billion followers among the current humanity.....

vED is the complete corpus of SCIENCES OF CREATION AND LIFE left for mankind as in sNskRUt language to use the knowledge therein as operating manual to live daily life with a perspective of past which leads to present which in turns creates future for each and every creation from an atom to a dust particle to the entire physical cosmos and the humans and superhumans termed as gods and/or forces of nature them.......

vED states that every human who performs any kARm (any act through word, thought or physical doing), the kARm results in and produces a fruit of kARm called kARm-fl. This kARm-fl has to be partaken or experienced by the performer of the kARm in the future. This future could be next time unit in this life-travel or the future life-travels. The future life travels could be in any of  the infinite ruup (creation forms) and naam (names of the creation forms) possible for any creation as created and based on the sciences of vED.

Each kARm-fl as a result of skaami kARm is of two types. (skaami kARm means kARm performed for self-serving purpose):

        1.  puAN`y kARm-fl which is the result of a good non-evil and non-injurious kARm based on rules and regulations of DHARm and which creates welfare and happiness in oneself and others.

         2. paapi kARm-fl which is the result of a bad, evil and injurious kARm based on not following the rules of regulations of DHARm and which creates pain and suffering in oneself and others.  This paapi kARm-fl is defined as sin in almost all the present day faith systems among the current humanity.

And sciences of vED states that the performer of a kARm has to receive and experience the kARm-fl exactly as was experienced by oneself and others who were affected by the performed kARm. This means pains imposed on others would have to be experienced by the pain creator in the same mode and intensity.

All the kARm-fl are banked in one's 3-part  kARmik bank/strong> as aagm bank/strong>,, sMchit bank and pRrbDH`d bank. And withdrawals from each of one's  kARmik bank are made at times to fit the master plan of the universe's functioning and one's life-travels in the universe in different ruup and naam travels suitable to receive and partake kARm-fl from one`s kARmik bank.

The kARm-fl will be experienced by the kARm performer in the future through withdrawal from one's kARmik bank. There is no way out of not receiving one's kARm-fl in the future.

However, one can mitigate the effects of receiving kARm-fl and/or get pardon and/or inspiration with proper knowledge tools for not doing those kARm which hurts others through words, thoughts and deeds by the vEDik science process called pRch`yaataap or penance.

OOn this PVAF knowledge sharing web site knowledge on the today's news item has been extensively posted on various subject pages....PVAF requests you to make a study tour of these postings to MAKE YOUR TOMORROW HAPPIER THAN TODAY WITH puAN`y kARm-fl.....

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Vatican revises Seven Deadly Sins
New sins target vices that have an effect on society and the environment

Edmonton Journal: Mar 10, 2008: Daily Telegraph -Rome

Failing to recycle plastic bags could see you spend eternity in hell, the Vatican has said, after drawing up a list of seven new deadly sins for our times.

The list was announced by Monsignor Gianfranco Girotti, a close ally of the Pope and the head of the Apostolic Penitentiary, one of the Roman Curia’s main court.

He told the vatore Romano, the official Vatican newspaper, that the “sins of yesteryear,” which include sloth, envy, gluttony, greed, lust, wrath and pride have a “rather individualistic dimension.”

The new seven deadly sins are designed to make worshippers realize that their vices have an effect on others as well. “The sins of today have a social resonance as well as an individual one, because of the great phenomenon of globalization,” said Mgr Girotti.

“In effect, it is more important than ever to pay attention to your sins, because the consequences are greater and more destructive.”

According to Catholic doctrine, mortal sins are a “grave violation of God’s law” and bring about “eternal death” if unrepented by the act of confession.

They are far more serious than venial sins, which impede a soul’s progress in the exercise of virtue and moral good.

He said that genetic modification, carrying out experiments on humans, polluting the environment, causing social injustice, causing poverty, becoming obscenely wealthy and taking drugs are all mortal sins.

“Many of these sins concern individual and social rights,” he said. “We cannot but denounce any violation of basic human biology, the consequences of which are difficult to foresee and keep under control,” he said.

He added that drugs “weaken the soul and darken one’s intelligence” and that they “leave many youths out of the reach of the church.”

Finally, he said that it was a deadly sin to allow “the poor to become ever poorer and the rich to become ever richer.”

However, the Apostolic Penitentiary is responsible for absolving worshippers of their sins, and Mgr Girotti said that the act of confession could help all sinners to reform.

The original seven deadly sins were drawn up by Pope Gregory the Great in the 6th century.

He also ranked the sins in order of their seriousness, but this has since been rejected by theologians including St. Thomas Aquinas.

Pope Gregory originally included sadness as a deadly sin, but this was substituted by the Church for sloth in the 17th century.

Each of the original seven deadly sins has an opposite holy virtue, which are chastity, abstinence, temperance, diligence, patience, kindness and humility.
THE SEVEN DEADLY SINS ARE DESCRIBED IN DETAIL BELOW(as posted on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia):

The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, are a classification of vices that were originally used in early Christian teachings to educate and instruct followers concerning (immoral) fallen man's tendency to sin. The Roman Catholic Church divided sin into two principal categories: "venial", which are relatively minor, and could be forgiven through any sacrament of the Church, and the more severe "capital" or mortal sin. Mortal sins destroyed the life of grace, and created the threat of eternal damnation unless either absolved through the sacrament of confession, or forgiven through perfect contrition on the part of the penitent. Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among European artists of the time eventually helped to ingrain them in many areas of Christian culture and Christian consciousness in general throughout the world. One means of such ingraining was the creation of the mnemonic SALIGIA based on the first letters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: Superbia, Avaritia, Luxuria, Invidia, Gula, Ira, Acedia.[1]


Listed in the same order used by both Pope Gregory the Great in the 6th Century AD, and later by Dante Alighieri in his epic poem The Divine Comedy, the seven deadly sins are as follows: Luxuria (extravagance, later lust), Gula (gluttony), Avaritia (greed), Acedia (sloth), Ira (wrath), Invidia (envy), and Superbia (pride). Each of the seven deadly sins has an opposite among the corresponding seven holy virtues (sometimes also referred to as the contrary virtues). In parallel order to the sins they oppose, the seven holy virtues are chastity, abstinence, temperance, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility.

The identification and definition of the seven deadly sins over their history has been a fluid process and the idea of what each of the seven actually encompasses has evolved over time. This process has been aided by the fact that they are not referred to in either a cohesive or codified manner in the Bible itself, and as a result other literary and ecclesiastical works referring to the seven deadly sins were instead consulted as sources from which definitions might be drawn. Part II of Dante's Divine Comedy, Purgatorio, has almost certainly been the best known source since the Renaissance.



[edit] The sins

[edit] Lust (Latin, luxuria)

Main article: Lust

Lust (or lechery) is usually thought of as involving obsessive or excessive thoughts or desires of a sexual nature. Unfulfilled lusts sometimes lead to sexual or sociological compulsions and/or transgressions including (but obviously not limited to) sexual addiction, adultery, bestiality, and rape. Dante's criterion was "excessive love of others," which therefore rendered love and devotion to God as secondary. In Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/sexual thoughts and feelings.

[edit] Gluttony (Latin, gula)

Main article: Gluttony

Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow, gluttony is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of anything to the point of waste. In the Christian religions, it is considered a sin because of the excessive desire for food, or its withholding from the needy.[1]

Depending on the culture, it can be seen as either a vice or a sign of status. Where food is relatively scarce, being able to eat well might be something to take pride in (although this can also result in a moral backlash when confronted with the reality of those less fortunate). Where food is routinely plentiful, it may be considered a sign of self control to resist the temptation to over-indulge.

Medieval Church leaders (e.g., Thomas Aquinas) took a more expansive view of gluttony (Okholm 2000), arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies and excessively costly foods.[2] He went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commit gluttony, including:

  • Praepropere - eating too soon
  • Laute - eating too expensively
  • Nimis - eating too much
  • Ardenter - eating too eagerly
  • Studiose - eating too daintily
  • Forente - eating too fervently

[edit] Greed (Latin, avaritia)

Main article: Greed

Greed (or avarice, covetousness) is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the Church) is applied to the acquisition of wealth in particular. St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that greed was "a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things." In Dante's Purgatory, the penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. "Avarice" is more of a blanket term that can describe many other examples of greedy behavior. These include disloyalty, deliberate betrayal, or treason, especially for personal gain, for example through bribery. Scavenging and hoarding of materials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed. Such misdeeds can include Simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actual confines of a church.

[edit] Sloth (Latin, acedia)

Main article: Sloth (deadly sin)

More than other sins, the definition of sloth has changed considerably since its original inclusion among the seven deadly sins. In fact it was first called the sin of sadness. It had been in the early years of Christianity characterized by what modern writers would now describe as melancholy: apathy, depression, and joylessness — the last being viewed as being a refusal to enjoy the goodness of God and the world He created. Originally, its place was fulfilled by two other aspects, Acedia and Sadness. The former described a spiritual apathy that affected the faithful by discouraging them from their religious work. Sadness (tristitia in Latin) described a feeling of dissatisfaction or discontent, which caused unhappiness with one's current situation. When St. Thomas Aquinas selected Acedia for his list, he described it as an "uneasiness of the mind," being a progenitor for lesser sins such as restlessness and instability. Dante refined this definition further, describing Sloth as being the "failure to love God with all one's heart, all one's mind and all one's soul." He also described it as the middle sin, and as such was the only sin characterised by an absence or insufficiency of love. In his Purgatorio, the slothful penitents were made to run continuously at top speed.

The modern view of the vice, as highlighted by its contrary virtue zeal/diligence, is that it represents the failure to utilize one's talents and gifts. For example, a student who does not work beyond what is required (and thus fails to achieve his or her full potential) could be labeled 'slothful'.

Current interpretations are therefore much less stringent and comprehensive than they were in medieval times, and portray Sloth as being more simply a sin of laziness or indifference, of an unwillingness to act, an unwillingness to care (rather than a failure to love God and His works). For this reason Sloth is now often seen as being considerably less serious than the other sins, more a sin of omission than of commission.

[edit] Wrath (Latin, ira)

Main article: Wrath

Wrath (or anger) may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. These feelings can manifest as vehement denial of the truth, both to others and in the form of self-denial, impatience with the procedure of law, and the desire to seek revenge outside of the workings of the justice system (such as engaging in vigilantism) and generally wishing to do evil or harm to others. The transgressions borne of vengeance are among the most serious, including murder, assault, and in extreme cases, genocide. (See Crimes against humanity.) Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self interest (although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy). Dante described vengeance as "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite".

[edit] Envy (Latin, invidia)

Main article: Envy

Like greed, envy is characterized by an insatiable desire; they differ, however, for two main reasons. First, greed is largely associated with material goods, whereas envy may apply more generally. Second, those who commit the sin of envy desire something that someone else has which they perceive themselves as lacking. Dante defined this as "love of one's own good perverted to a desire to deprive other men of theirs." Dante's concept of envy is roughly equivalent to the meaning of the German word "schadenfreude," or to delight in the misfortune of others. In Dante's Purgatory, the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire, because they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others brought low. Thomas Aquinas described Envy as "sorrow for another's good" [2].

[edit] Pride (Latin, superbia)

Vanitas with her mirror. Painting by Titian, c. 1515
Vanitas with her mirror. Painting by Titian, c. 1515
Main article: Pride

In almost every list pride ( or hubris or vanity) is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, and indeed the ultimate source from which the others arise. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others, failing to give compliments to others though they may be deserving of them[citation needed], and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God). Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbor." In Jacob Bidermann's medieval miracle play, Cenodoxus, Pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the famed Doctor of Paris, Cenodoxus. In perhaps the most famous example, the story of Lucifer, Pride was what caused his Fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan. Vanity and Narcissism are prime examples of this Sin. In the Divine Comedy, the penitent were forced to walk with stone slabs bearing down on their backs in order to induce feelings of humility.

[edit] Biblical references

[edit] Proverbs 6:16 – 19

In Proverbs 6:16 – 19, it is stated that "(16) These six things doth the Lord hate: yea, seven are an abomination unto him:" (quotes from "King James Version (KJV)" translation of the Bible). These are:

  • (17) A proud look,
  • a lying tongue,
  • and hands that shed innocent blood,
  • (18) A heart that deviseth wicked imaginations,
  • feet that be swift in running to mischief,
  • (19) A false witness that speaketh lies,
  • and he that soweth discord among brethren.

While there are seven of them, these sins are considerably different in outward appearance from the seven deadly sins list that arose later. The only sin which is clearly on both lists is Pride. "Hands that kill innocent people" could be taken to refer to Wrath. However, it is possible to imagine a case where cold blooded murder of an innocent would be one of the "hated things" without necessarily being an example of Wrath. Practices such as abortion, genocide, and euthanasia can be arguably covered under this umbrella of "hands that shed innocent blood."

The remaining five of the "deadly sins" do not have even this loose correspondence to the "hated things", even if it is easy to imagine how they might lead someone to acting in one of the ways described in Proverbs. As previously stated, there is no where in the Bible where the traditional "seven deadly sins" are located or listed, although they are all condemned in various parts, along with several others. These "deadly sins" are not necessarily worse than any others that are listed. The Bible makes it clear throughout its New Testament that it only takes one sin, which is an act of disobeying God's law, to separate man from a perfect God, placing him in need of redemption and salvation.

[edit] Other biblical references

The list in Proverbs is not the only list of sins in the Bible. It does list them as "seven", but it is far from being an exhaustive listing of sins. Another list of sins is given in the book of (New Testament) Galatians 5:19-21. That list reads: (19) Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, (20) Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, (21) Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.(KJV)

Wrath is mentioned specifically, but linked with Hate, includes the notions of hostility both acted upon and purely internalized. Envy/Jealousy is part of the list in Galatians. Greed is part of "selfish ambitions" from Galatians, but is also mirrored in Proverbs' "wicked plans." Gluttony is evident in "drunkenness and revellings", but also implied as the contrary of the virtue in Galatians 5:23 - "temperance" (self-control).

Sloth is not listed in Galatians, but it can be found in verses such as Proverbs 6:6-10, "How long will you sleep, O sluggard?". Laziness is addressed in many other verses, though not necessarily labeled obviously as sin. In 1 Corinthians 3:8, a man is to receive "according to his labors". Similarly in Timothy 5:18, a laborer is worthy of his wages, with the implied converse being that the sluggard is not entitled to be fed or rewarded. He sins in living off others' labors.

Pride is mentioned in Proverbs 16:18 "Pride goeth before destruction and a haughty spirit before a fall."(KJV)

[edit] Catholic virtues

The Roman Catholic Church also recognizes seven holy virtues which correspond to each of the seven deadly sins.

Vice Virtue
Lust Chastity
Gluttony Temperance
Greed Charity
Sloth Diligence
Wrath Forgiveness
Envy Kindness
Pride Humility

[edit] Associations with demons

In 1589, Peter Binsfeld paired each of the deadly sins with a demon, who tempted people by means of the associated sin. According to Binsfeld's Classification of Demons, the pairings are as follows:

There are also other demons who invoke sin, for instance Lilith and her offspring, the incubi and succubi, invoke lust. The succubi sleep with men in order to impregnate themselves so that they can spawn demons. The incubi sleep with women to lead them astray and to impregnate them with demon spawn.

[edit] Cultural references

The seven deadly sins have long been a source of inspiration for writers and artists, from morality tales of the Middle Ages to modern manga series (FullMetal Alchemist for example) and video games.

[edit] Literary works inspired by the seven deadly sins

  • John Climacus (7th century) in the The Ladder of Divine Ascent places victory over the eight thoughts as individual steps of the thirty-step ladder: wrath (8), vainglory (10, 22), sadness (13), gluttony (14), lust (15), greed (16, 17), acedia (18), and pride (23).
  • Dante Alighieri's (1265-1321 A.D.) Divine Comedy is a three-part work composed of Inferno, Purgatory, and Paradise. Inferno divides hell into nine concentric circles, four of which directly correspond to some of the deadly sins (Circle 2-lust, 3-gluttony, 4-greed, 5-wrath). The remaining circles do not neatly map onto the seven sins. In Purgatory, the mountain is scaled in seven levels and follows the sequence of Thomas Aquinas (starting with pride).
  • William Langland's (c. 1332-1386) Vision of Piers Plowman is structured around a series of dreams that are critical of contemporary errors while encouraging godly living. The sins are mentioned in this order: proud (Passus V, lines 62-71), lechour (V.71-74), envye (V.75-132), wrathe (V.133-185), coveitise (V.186-306), glutton (V.307-385), sleuthe (V.386-453) (using the B-text). [4]
  • Geoffrey Chaucer's (c. 1340-1400) Canterbury Tales features the seven deadly sins in The Parson's Tale: pride (paragraphs 24-29), envy (30-31), wrath (32-54), sloth (55-63), greed(64-70), gluttony (71-74), lust (75-84). [5]
  • Christopher Marlowe's (1564-1593) The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus shows Lucifer, Beelzebub, and Mephistophilis coming from hell to show Dr. Fastus "some pastime" (Act II, Scene 2). The sins present themselves in order: pride, greed, envy, wrath, gluttony, sloth, lust. [6]
  • Edmund Spenser's (1552-1599), The Faerie Queene addresses the seven deadly sins in Book I (The Legend of the Knight of the Red Cross, Holiness): vanity/pride (Canto IV, stanzas 4-17), idleness/sloth (IV.18-20), gluttony (IV.21-23), lechery/lust (IV.24-26), avarice/greed (IV.27-29), envy (IV.30-32), wrath (IV.33-35). [7]
  • Garth Nix's The Keys to the Kingdom is a seven book children's series in which the main nemesis of each book is afflicted by one of the seven deadly sins.
  • Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop addresses the sins and their paired virtues in Archbishop Latour's missionary journeys in the Southwestern United States.[citation needed]

[edit] Art and music

[edit] Film, television, comic books and video games

  • The original Bedazzled (1967) includes all seven sins, most notably Raquel Welch as Lust and Barry Humphries as Envy. Peter Cook's character, The Devil, is also named Lucifer, representing Pride.
  • The film Se7en (1995), directed by David Fincher and starring Brad Pitt and Morgan Freeman. A serial killer reconstructs each of the deadly sins through his crimes.
  • In the Japanese manga and anime series Fullmetal Alchemist, each sin is used as an alias for a member of a group of powerful false humans called "homunculi".
  • The Magnificent Seven Deadly Sins (1971) is a British film built around a series of comedy sketches on the seven deadly sins.
  • In Overlord, the seven heroes that the protagonist must defeat are based on the seven sins: Melvin (gluttony), Sir William (lust), Oberon (sloth), Goldo (greed), Jewel (envy), Kahn (wrath) and the Wizard (pride).
  • In Digimon, the Seven Great Demon Lords, each of which represent one of the sins, are a major group of antagonists.
  • In Devil May Cry 3, the seven deadly sins are represented by a group of common enemies, as well as by seven infernal bells, hidden throughout the tower of Temen-ni-gru, used by the antagonist to open the gate to the Demon World. Fallen angels that personify the sins also feature heavily in the prequel manga, in which they are important in summoning the tower in the first place.
  • In the Philippines TV series Lastikman each major villain represents one of the deadly sins.
  • In the Norwegian TV show De syv dødssyndende (The Seven Deadly Sins), Kristopher Schau attempts to invoke the wrath of God by carrying out each of the seven deadly sins.When Schau was talking about the show on the talkshow Senkveld (Late night), he said "If I don't end up in Hell, then there is no Hell." The program caused a great deal of public debate surrounding the issue of censorship.
  • In Matt Fraction's comic book Casanova the volumes are named for each of the seven sins beginning with Luxuria.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Okholm, Dennis. "Rx for Gluttony". Christianity Today, Vol. 44, No. 10, September 4, 2000, p.62
  2. ^ Gluttony. Catholic Encyclopedia.

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

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