Posted by Vishva News Reporter on September 27, 2009



"For those who believe, an explanation is unnecessary.
For those, who don´t believe, an explanation is impossible.”

- St. Bernadette of Lourdes




(From Hinduism Today: Source:, ITALY, September 24th, 2009)

Monday,  September 21, 2009: 09:38 AM: LUCKNOW, India (Reuters)

Thousands of people flocked to temples across India on Monday following reports that idols of Hindu gods were drinking milk given by devotees as sacred offerings, witnesses said.

Teenagers, adults and the aged stood in long lines with garlands and bowls of milk to feed the idols of Lord Shiva, Lord Krishna and the elephant-headed Lord Ganesha, they said.

Hundreds chanted hymns in the northern city of Lucknow and the eastern city of Kolkata and went into hysterics when the milk held against the idols disappeared.

"It is amazing, Lord Ganesha drank milk from my hands. Now he will answer all my prayers," said Surama Dasgupta, a middle-aged woman in Kolkata.

The frenzy began late on Sunday in some northern cities and soon spread across the country, including the capital New Delhi, even as rationalists and non-believers called it mass hysteria.

In 1995, September 21 was the first day of the “Hindu milk miracle”, the day on which the statues of the Deity Ganesh begin drink milk if it is closer to their mouth a spoon containing the beverage.

The following of Ganesha is widespread, even outside India and here in Italy. Devotees of Ganesha are known Ganapatya.

The statues drinking milk was interpreted as a reminder of the playfulness of Ganesha, his love for games and jokes.

According to the media as reported by Hinduism Today magazine and mentioned in the book “Ganesha, Remover of Obstacles” by Manuela Dunn Mascetti, in September 1995, the phenomenon spread from India and also occurred in other places, from New Delhi to New York, Canada, Mauritius, Kenya, Australia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, United Kingdom, Denmark, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Hong Kong, Trinidad, Grenada and Italy.

PVAF is publishing this news story because of the explanation by scientists on the next webpage that the statue's porosity absorbed the milk........” statue porosity has a limited capacity.......where would all that milk go to????...nobody anywhere the phenomenon was observed could find milk overflowing from the statues or near about the statutes....

In 1995, the media coverage was extensive all over the world, and although some scientists and 'experts' (but not all since some of them witnessed it themselves and reported "an authentic miracle") created theories of "capillary absorption" (although some statues were metal, made of bronze or even gold) and "mass hysteria" although:

(a) it was happening in different places of the world simultaneously, to believers and skeptics,
(b) the milk, as a physical substance, was disappearing and
(c) the event was not foretold by some charismatic prophet and did not coincide with some other major event),
the overwhelming evidence and conclusion was that an unexplainable miracle had occurred.

PVAF invites YOUR participation in explaining the TRUTH about this "miracle....You can post your sharing by clicking on the POST A COMMENT button in the header of this news item and/or send your sharing for publication by email by clicking here......
And to read about the same phenomenon happening world-wide first on September 21, 1995 and again on  August 21-22, 2006 and also a quick primer on who Ganesha is please click on the next line........


......from the archives....
ON SEPTEMBER 21, 1995.....

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A statue of Ganesha

The Hindu milk miracle was a phenomenon considered by many Hindus as a miracle which occurred on September 21, 1995.[1]

Before dawn, a Hindu worshiper at a temple in south New Delhi made an offering of milk to a statue of Lord Ganesha.

When a spoonful of milk from the bowl was held up to the trunk of the statue, the liquid was seen to disappear, apparently taken in by the idol.

Word of the event spread quickly, and by mid-morning it was found that statues of the entire Hindu pantheon in temples all over North India were taking in milk.

By noon the news had spread beyond India, and Hindu temples in Britain, Canada, Dubai, and Nepal among other countries had successfully replicated the phenomenon, and the Vishva Hindu Parishad (an Indian Hindu organisation) had announced that a miracle was occurring.

The apparent miracle had a significant effect on the areas around major temples; vehicle and pedestrian traffic in New Delhi was dense enough to create a gridlock lasting until late in the evening.

Many stores in areas with significant Hindu communities saw a massive jump in sales of milk, with one Gateway store in England selling over 25,000 pints of milk,[2] and overall milk sales in New Delhi jumped over 30%.[3]

Many minor temples struggled to deal with the vast increase in numbers, and queues spilled out into the streets, reaching distances of over a mile.

A person offering a spoonful of milk to a Hindu idol.

Seeking to explain the phenomenon, scientists from India's Ministry of Science and Technology travelled to a temple in New Delhi and made an offering of milk containing a food colouring. As the level of liquid in the spoon dropped, the scientists theorized that after the milk disappeared from the spoon, it coated the statue beneath where the spoon was placed. With this result, the scientists offered capillary action as an explanation; the surface tension of the milk was pulling the liquid up and out of the spoon, before gravity caused it to run down the front of the statue.[1]

This explanation did nothing to reduce the numbers of faithful rushing to the temples, however, and queues of people carrying pots, pans, and buckets of milk continued to gather. Suzanne Goldenberg, a Delhi-based journalist, reported that: "Inside the darkened shrine, people held stainless steel cups and clay pots to the central figure of the five-headed Shiva, the destroyer of evil, and his snake companion, and watched the milk levels ebb. Although some devotees force-fed the idol enthusiastically, the floor was fairly dry."

To those who believed in the miracle, further proof was offered when the phenomenon seemed to cease before the end of the day, with many statues refusing to take more milk even before noon.[4]

 A small number of temples outside of India reported the effect continuing for several more days, but no further reports were made after the beginning of October.

 However, skeptics hold the incident to be an example of mass hysteria. The story was picked up, mostly as a novelty piece, by news services around the world, including CNN, the BBC, the New York Times and the Guardian.

[edit] 2006 miracle

The miracle allegedly occurred again on 20-21 August 2006 in almost exactly the same fashion, although initial reports seem to indicate that it occurred only with statues of Ganesh, Shiva, and Durga.

The first reported occurrence was on the evening of the 20th in the city of Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh, from where it quickly spread throughout India.[5]

However, rationalists are heavily skeptical about the issue, attributing it to capillary action yet again.[6] The phenomenon had reappeared only days after reports of sea water turning sweet that led to mass hysteria in Mumbai.

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Suzanne Goldenberg, "India's gods milk their faithful in a brief 'miracle'", The Guardian, September 22, 1995.
  2. ^ David Wooding, "Cow do they do that?", The Sun, September 22, 1995.
  3. ^ Tim McGirk, "India's thirsty statues drink the nation dry", The Independent, September 22, 1995
  4. ^ Meenhal Baghel, "Awed devotees witness Shiva miracle across country", The Asian Age, September 22, 1995.
  5. ^ Shaveta Bansal, "Devotees Throng Temples To See Hindu Deities Drinking Milk", All Headline News, August 21, 2006
  6. ^ "Milk-drinking gods just plain science", Press Trust of India, August 21, 2006

[edit] External links



(From  Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Ganesha (Ga?esa)
Basohli miniature, circa 1730. National Museum, New Delhi, India.[1]
Basohli miniature, circa 1730. National Museum, New Delhi, India.[1]
Devanagari ????
Affiliation Deva
Mantra ? ?????? ???
(O? Ga?esaya Nama?)
Weapon Parasu (Axe),[2]
Pasa (Lasso),[3]
A?kusa (Hook)[4]
Consort Buddhi (wisdom),
Riddhi (prosperity),
Siddhi (attainment)
Mount Mouse/Rat

Ganesha (Sanskrit: ????; IAST: Ga?esa; Ganesha.ogg listen ), also spelled Ganesa or Ganesh and also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, and Pillaiyar, is one of the best-known and most widely worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.[5] His image is found throughout India.[6] Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations.[7] Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains, Buddhists, and beyond India.[8]

Although he is known by many other attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify.[9] Ganesha is widely revered as the Remover of Obstacles[10] and more generally as Lord of Beginnings and Lord of Obstacles (Vighnesha, Vighneshvara),[11] patron of arts and sciences, and the deva of intellect and wisdom.[12] He is honoured at the beginning of rituals and ceremonies and invoked as Patron of Letters during writing sessions.[13] Several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography.

Ganesha emerged as a distinct deity in clearly recognizable form in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta Period, although he inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors.[14] His popularity rose quickly, and he was formally included among the five primary deities of Smartism (a Hindu denomination) in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the Ganapatya, (Sanskrit: ???????; ga?apatya), who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity, arose during this period.[15] The principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa.



[edit] Etymology and other names

Ganesha as 'Shri Mayureshwar' with consorts Buddhi and Siddhi, Morgaon (the central shrine for the regional a??avinayaka complex)[16]

Ganesha has many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati and Vigneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri (Sanskrit: ????; sri, also spelled Sri or Shree) is often added before his name. One popular way Ganesha is worshipped is by chanting a Ganesha Sahasranama, a litany of "a thousand names of Ganesha". Each name in the sahasranama conveys a different meaning and symbolises a different aspect of Ganesha. At least two different versions of the Ganesha Sahasranama exist; one version is drawn from the Ganesha Purana, a Hindu scripture venerating Ganesha.[17]

The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (Sanskrit: ??; ga?a), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (Sanskrit: ??; isa), meaning lord or master.[18] The word gana when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the ganas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva (IAST: Siva).[19] The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.[20] Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Ganas" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements.[21] Ganapati (Sanskrit: ?????; ga?apati), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of ga?a, meaning "group", and pati, meaning "ruler" or "lord".[20] The Amarakosha,[22] an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha : Vinayaka, Vighnaraja (equivalent to Vignesha), Dvaimatura (one who has two mothers),[23] Ga?adhipa (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), Heramba, Lambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (IAST: gajanana) ; having the face of an elephant).[24]

Vinayaka (Sanskrit: ??????; vinayaka) is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Pura?as and in Buddhist Tantras.[25] This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak (a??avinayaka).[26] The names Vignesha (Sanskrit: ???????; vighnesa) and Vigneshvara (Sanskrit: ??????????; vighnesvara) (Lord of Obstacles)[11] refers to his primary function in Hindu mythology as the creator and remover of obstacles (vighna).[27]

A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pille or Pillaiyar (Little Child).[28] A. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pille means a "child" while pillaiyar means a "noble child". He adds that the words pallu, pella, and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify "tooth or tusk of an elephant", but more generally "elephant".[29] Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have originally meant "the young of the elephant", because the Pali word pillaka means "a young elephant".[30]

[edit] Iconography

This statue of Ganesha was created in the Mysore District of Karnataka in the 13th century.

Ganesha is a popular figure in Indian art.[31] Unlike those of some deities, representations of Ganesha show wide variations and distinct patterns changing over time.[32] He may be portrayed standing, dancing, heroically taking action against demons, playing with his family as a boy, sitting down, or engaging in a range of contemporary situations.

Images of Ganesha first appeared in Sri Lanka at least as early as the 2nd century CE. The earliest known image occurs at the Kantaka Cetiya in Mihintale, which is dated to earlier than the 1st century BC. The figure is a one-tusked Gana (dwarf) attended by other ganas, who hold the various attributes of the deity.[33]

Ganesha images were prevalent in many parts of India by the 6th century.[34] The figure shown to the right is typical of Ganesha statuary from 900–1200, after Ganesha had been well-established as an independent deity with his own sect. This example features some of Ganesha's common iconographic elements. A virtually identical statue has been dated between 973–1200 by Paul Martin-Dubost,[35] and another similar statue is dated c. 12th century by Pratapaditya Pal.[36] Ganesha has the head of an elephant and a big belly. This statue has four arms, which is common in depictions of Ganesha. He holds his own broken tusk in his lower-right hand and holds a delicacy, which he samples with his trunk, in his lower-left hand. The motif of Ganesha turning his trunk sharply to his left to taste a sweet in his lower-left hand is a particularly archaic feature.[37] A more primitive statue in one of the Ellora Caves with this general form has been dated to the 7th century.[38] Details of the other hands are difficult to make out on the statue shown. In the standard configuration, Ganesha typically holds an axe or a goad in one upper arm and a noose in the other upper arm.

The influence of this old constellation of iconographic elements can still be seen in contemporary representations of Ganesha. In one modern form, the only variation from these old elements is that the lower-right hand does not hold the broken tusk but rather is turned toward the viewer in a gesture of protection or fearlessness (abhaya mudra).[39] The same combination of four arms and attributes occurs in statues of Ganesha dancing, which is a very popular theme.[40]

[edit] Common attributes

A typical four-armed form. Miniature of Nurpur school (circa 1810).[41]

Ganesha has been represented with the head of an elephant since the early stages of his appearance in Indian art.[42] Puranic myths provide many explanations for how he got his elephant head.[43] One of his popular forms, Heramba-Ganapati, has five elephant heads, and other less-common variations in the number of heads are known.[44] While some texts say that Ganesha was born with an elephant head, in most stories he acquires the head later.[45] The most recurrent motif in these stories is that Ganesha was born with a human head and body and that Shiva beheaded him when Ganesha came between Shiva and Parvati. Shiva then replaced Ganesha's original head with that of an elephant.[46] Details of the battle and where the replacement head came from vary according to different sources.[47] In another story, when Ganesha was born, his mother, Parvati, showed off her new baby to the other gods. Unfortunately, the god Shani (Saturn), who is said to have the evil eye, looked at him, causing the baby's head to be burned to ashes. The god Vishnu came to the rescue and replaced the missing head with that of an elephant.[48] Another story says that Ganesha was created directly by Shiva's laughter. Because Shiva considered Ganesha too alluring, he gave him the head of an elephant and a protruding belly.[49]

Ganesha's earliest name was Ekadanta (One Tusk), referring to his single whole tusk, the other having been broken off.[50] Some of the earliest images of Ganesha show him holding his broken tusk.[51] The importance of this distinctive feature is reflected in the Mudgala Purana, which states that the name of Ganesha's second incarnation is Ekadanta.[52] Ganesha's protruding belly appears as a distinctive attribute in his earliest statuary, which dates to the Gupta period (fourth to sixth centuries).[53] This feature is so important that, according to the Mudgala Purana, two different incarnations of Ganesha use names based on it: Lambodara (Pot Belly, or, literally, Hanging Belly) and Mahodara (Great Belly).[54] Both names are Sanskrit compounds describing his belly (Sanskrit: udara).[55] The Brahmanda Purana says that Ganesha has the name Lambodara because all the universes (i.e., cosmic eggs; IAST: brahma??as) of the past, present, and future are present in him.[56] The number of Ganesha's arms varies; his best-known forms have between two and sixteen arms.[57] Many depictions of Ganesha feature four arms, which is mentioned in Puranic sources and codified as a standard form in some iconographic texts.[58] His earliest images had two arms.[59] Forms with 14 and 20 arms appeared in central India during the 9th and 10th centuries.[60] The serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms.[61] According to the Ganesha Purana, Ganesha wrapped the serpent Vasuki around his neck.[62] Other depictions of snakes include use as a sacred thread (IAST: yajñyopavita)[63] wrapped around the stomach as a belt, held in a hand, coiled at the ankles, or as a throne. Upon Ganesha's forehead there may be a third eye or the Shaivite sectarian mark (Sanskrit: tilaka), which consists of three horizontal lines.[64] The Ganesha Purana prescribes a tilaka mark as well as a crescent moon on the forehead.[65] A distinct form of Ganesha called Bhalachandra (IAST: bhalacandra; "Moon on the Forehead") includes that iconographic element. Specific colors are associated with certain forms.[66] Many examples of color associations with specific meditation forms are prescribed in the Sritattvanidhi, a treatise on Hindu iconography. For example, white is associated with his representations as Heramba-Ganapati and Rina-Mochana-Ganapati (Ganapati Who Releases from Bondage).[67] Ekadanta-Ganapati is visualized as blue during meditation on that form.[68]

[edit] Vahanas

The earliest Ganesha images are without a vahana (mount).[69] Of the eight incarnations of Ganesha described in the Mudgala Purana, Ganesha has a mouse in five of them, uses a lion in his incarnation as Vakratunda, a peacock in his incarnation of Vikata, and Shesha, the divine serpent, in his incarnation as Vighnaraja.[70] Of the four incarnations of Ganesha listed in the Ganesha Purana, Mohotkata has a lion, Mayuresvara has a peacock, Dhumraketu has a horse, and Gajanana has a rat.[71] Jain depictions of Ganesha show his vahana variously as a mouse, elephant, tortoise, ram, or peacock.[72]

Ganesha dancing on his mouse, 11th century, Bengal, musée d'art asiatique de Berlin.

Ganesha is often shown riding on or attended by a mouse or rat.[73] Martin-Dubost says that the rat began to appear as the principal vehicle in sculptures of Ganesha in central and western India during the 7th century; the rat was always placed close to his feet.[74] The mouse as a mount first appears in written sources in the Matsya Purana and later in the Brahmananda Purana and Ganesha Purana, where Ganesha uses it as his vehicle only in his last incarnation.[75] The Ganapati Atharvashirsa includes a meditation verse on Ganesha that describes the mouse appearing on his flag.[76] The names Mu?akavahana (mouse-mount) and Akhuketana (rat-banner) appear in the Ganesha Sahasranama.[77]

The mouse is interpreted in several ways. According to Grimes, "Many, if not most of those who interpret Ga?apati's mouse, do so negatively; it symbolizes tamogu?a as well as desire".[78] Along these lines, Michael Wilcockson says it symbolizes those who wish to overcome desires and be less selfish.[79] Krishan notes that the rat is destructive and a menace to crops. The Sanskrit word mu?aka (mouse) is derived from the root mu? (stealing, robbing). It was essential to subdue the rat as a destructive pest, a type of vighna (impediment) that needed to be overcome. According to this theory, showing Ganesha as master of the rat demonstrates his function as Vigneshvara (Lord of Obstacles) and gives evidence of his possible role as a folk gramata-devata (village deity) who later rose to greater prominence.[80] Martin-Dubost notes a view that the rat is a symbol suggesting that Ganesha, like the rat, penetrates even the most secret places.[81]

[edit] Associations

[edit] Obstacles

A Ganesha image worshipped during Ganesh Festival in Mumbai, India. Ganesha is widely worshiped across India as the remover of obstacles.

Ganesha is Vighneshvara or Vighnaraja, the Lord of Obstacles, both of a material and spiritual order.[82] He is popularly worshipped as a remover of obstacles, though traditionally he also places obstacles in the path of those who need to be checked. Paul Courtright says that "his task in the divine scheme of things, his dharma, is to place and remove obstacles. It is his particular territory, the reason for his creation."[83]

Krishan notes that some of Ganesha's names reflect shadings of multiple roles that have evolved over time.[27] Dhavalikar ascribes the quick ascension of Ganesha in the Hindu pantheon, and the emergence of the Ganapatyas, to this shift in emphasis from vighnakarta (obstacle-creator) to vighnaharta (obstacle-averter).[84] However, both functions continue to be vital to his character, as Robert Brown explains, "even after the Pura?ic Ga?esa is well-defined, in art Ga?esa remained predominantly important for his dual role as creator and remover of obstacles, thus having both a negative and a positive aspect".[85]

[edit] Buddhi

Ganesha is considered to be the Lord of letters and learning.[86] In Sanskrit, the word buddhi is a feminine noun that is variously translated as intelligence, wisdom, or intellect.[87] The concept of buddhi is closely associated with the personality of Ganesha, especially in the Puranic period, when many stories stress his cleverness and love of intelligence. One of Ganesha's names in the Ganesha Purana and the Ganesha Sahasranama is Buddhipriya.[88] This name also appears in a list of 21 names at the end of the Ganesha Sahasranama that Ganesha says are especially important.[89] The word priya can mean "fond of", and in a marital context it can mean "lover" or "husband",[90] so the name may mean either "Fond of Intelligence" or "Buddhi's Husband".[91]

[edit] Aum

Ganesha is identified with the Hindu mantra Aum (?, also called Om). The term o?karasvarupa (Aum is his form), when identified with Ganesha, refers to the notion that he personifies the primal sound.[92] The Ganapati Atharvashirsa attests to this association. Chinmayananda translates the relevant passage as follows:

(O Lord Ganapati!) You are (the Trinity) Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesa. You are Indra. You are fire [Agni] and air [Vayu]. You are the sun [Surya] and the moon [Chandrama]. You are Brahman. You are (the three worlds) Bhuloka [earth], Antariksha-loka [space], and Swargaloka [heaven]. You are Om. (That is to say, You are all this).[93]

Ganesha (Devanagari) Aum jewel

Some devotees see similarities between the shape of Ganesha's body in iconography and the shape of Aum in the Devanagari and Tamil scripts.[94]

[edit] First chakra

According to Kundalini yoga, Ganesha resides in the first chakra, called Muladhara (muladhara). Mula means "original, main"; adhara means "base, foundation". The muladhara chakra is the principle on which the manifestation or outward expansion of primordial Divine Force rests.[95] This association is also attested to in the Ganapati Atharvashirsa. Courtright translates this passage as follows: "[O Ganesha,] You continually dwell in the sacral plexus at the base of the spine [muladhara cakra]."[96] Thus, Ganesha has a permanent abode in every being at the Muladhara.[97] Ganesha holds, supports and guides all other chakras, thereby "governing the forces that propel the wheel of life".[95]

[edit] Family and consorts

Shiva and Parvati giving a bath to Ga?esa. Kangra miniature, 18th century. Allahbad Museum, New Delhi.[98]

Though Ganesha is popularly held to be the son of Shiva and Parvati, the Puranic myths disagree about his birth.[99] He may have been created by Shiva,[100] or by Parvati,[101] or by Shiva and Parvati,[102] or appeared mysteriously and was discovered by Shiva and Parvati.[103]

The family includes his brother Skanda, who is also called Karttikeya, Murugan, and other names.[104] Regional differences dictate the order of their births. In northern India, Skanda is generally said to be the elder, while in the south, Ganesha is considered the first born.[105] Skanda was an important martial deity from about 500 BCE to about 600 CE, when worship of him declined significantly in northern India. As Skanda fell, Ganesha rose. Several stories tell of sibling rivalry between the brothers[106] and may reflect sectarian tensions.[107]

Ganesha's marital status, the subject of considerable scholarly review, varies widely in mythological stories.[108] One pattern of myths identifies Ganesha as an unmarried brahmacarin.[109] This view is common in southern India and parts of northern India.[110] Another pattern associates him with the concepts of Buddhi (intellect), Siddhi (spiritual power), and Riddhi (prosperity); these qualities are sometimes personified as goddesses, said to be Ganesha's wives.[111] He also may be shown with a single consort or a nameless servant (Sanskrit: dasi).[112] Another pattern connects Ganesha with the goddess of culture and the arts, Sarasvati or Sarda (particularly in Maharashtra).[113] He is also associated with the goddess of luck and prosperity, Lakshmi.[114] Another pattern, mainly prevalent in the Bengal region, links Ganesha with the banana tree, Kala Bo.[115]

The Shiva Purana says that Ganesha had two sons: Ksema (prosperity) and Labha (profit). In northern Indian variants of this story, the sons are often said to be Subha (auspiciouness) and Labha.[116] The 1975 Hindi film Jai Santoshi Maa shows Ganesha married to Riddhi and Siddhi and having a daughter named Santoshi Ma, the goddess of satisfaction. This story has no Puranic basis, but Anita Raina Thapan and Lawrence Cohen cite Santoshi Ma's cult as evidence of Ganesha's continuing evolution as a popular deity.[117]

[edit] Worship and festivals

Celebrations of Ganesh by the Indian and Sri Lankan Tamil community in Paris, France.

Ganesha is worshipped on many religious and secular occasions; especially at the beginning of ventures such as buying a vehicle or starting a business.[118] K.N. Somayaji says, "there can hardly be a [Hindu] home [in India] which does not house an idol of Ganapati. [..] Ganapati, being the most popular deity in India, is worshipped by almost all castes and in all parts of the country".[119] Devotees believe that if Ganesha is propitiated, he grants success, prosperity and protection against adversity.[120]

Ganesha is a non-sectarian deity, and Hindus of all denominations invoke him at the beginning of prayers, important undertakings, and religious ceremonies.[121] Dancers and musicians, particularly in southern India, begin performances of arts such as the Bharatnatyam dance with a prayer to Ganesha.[122] Mantras such as Om Shri Ga?eshaya Namah (Om, salutation to the Illustrious Ganesha) are often used. One of the most famous mantras associated with Ganesha is Om Ga? Ganapataye Namah (Om, Ga?, Salutation to the Lord of Hosts).[123]

Devotees offer Ganesha sweets such as modaka and small sweet balls (laddus).[124] He is often shown carrying a bowl of sweets, called a modakapatra.[125] Because of his identification with the color red, he is often worshipped with red sandalwood paste (raktacandana)[126] or red flowers. Durva grass (Cynodon dactylon) and other materials are also used in his worship.[127]

Festivals associated with Ganesh are "the Vinayaka caturthi (Ganesh Chaturthi) in the suklapak?a (the fourth day of the waxing moon) in the month of bhadrapada (August/September) and the Ga?esa jayanti (Ga?esa's birthday) celebrated on the cathurthi of the k???apak?a (fourth day of the waning moon) in the month of magha (January/February)."[128]

[edit] Ganesh Chaturthi

Street festivities in Hyderabad, India during the festival of Ganesh Chaturthi.

An annual festival honours Ganesha for ten days, starting on Ganesh Chaturthi, which typically falls in late August or early September.[129] The festival culminates on the day of Ananta Chaturdashi, when images (murtis) of Ganesha are immersed in the most convenient body of water.[130] In 1893, Lokmanya Tilak transformed this annual Ganesha festival from private family celebrations into a grand public event.[131] He did so "to bridge the gap between the Brahmins and the non-Brahmins and find an appropriate context in which to build a new grassroots unity between them" in his nationalistic strivings against the British in Maharashtra.[132] Because of Ganesha's wide appeal as "the god for Everyman", Tilak chose him as a rallying point for Indian protest against British rule.[133] Tilak was the first to install large public images of Ganesha in pavilions, and he established the practice of submerging all the public images on the tenth day.[134] Today, Hindus across India celebrate the Ganapati festival with great fervour, though it is most popular in the state of Maharashtra.[135][136] The festival also assumes huge proportions in Mumbai and in the surrounding belt of Ashtavinayaka temples.

[edit] Temples

In Hindu temples, Ganesha is depicted in various ways: as an acolyte or subordinate deity (pãrsva-devatã); as a deity related to the principal deity (parivara-devatã); or as the principal deity of the temple (pradhana), treated similarly as the highest gods of the Hindu pantheon.[137] As the god of transitions, he is placed at the doorway of many Hindu temples to keep out the unworthy, which is analogous to his role as Parvati’s doorkeeper.[138] In addition, several shrines are dedicated to Ganesha himself, of which the Ashtavinayak (Sanskrit: ??????????; a??avinayaka; lit. "eight Ganesha (shrines)") in Maharashtra are particularly well known. Located within a 100-kilometer radius of the city of Pune, each of these eight shrines celebrates a particular form of Ganapati, complete with its own lore and legend; together they "form a mandala, demarking the sacred cosmos of Ganesha".[139]

A statue of Ganesha carved in wood

There are many other important Ganesha temples at the following locations: Wai in Maharashtra; Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh; Jodhpur, Nagaur and Raipur (Pali) in Rajasthan; Baidyanath in Bihar; Baroda, Dholaka, and Valsad in Gujarat and Dhundiraj Temple in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Prominent Ganesha temples in southern India include the following: : the Jambukesvara Temple (Ucchi pillaiyar kottai) at Tiruchirapalli; at Rameshvaram and Suchindram; Karpaka Vinayakar Temple in TamilNadu; Hampi, Kasargod, and Idagunji in Karnataka; and Bhadrachalam in Andhra Pradesh.[140][141]

T. A. Gopinatha notes, “Every village however small has its own image of Vighnesvara (Vigneshvara) with or without a temple to house it in. At entrances of villages and forts, below pipa?a trees […], in a niche […] in temples of Vi??u (Vishnu) as well as Siva (Shiva) and also in separate shrines specially constructed in Siva temples […]; the figure of Vighnesvara is invariably seen.”[142] Ganesha temples have also been built outside of India, including southeast Asia, Nepal,[143] and in several western countries.[144]

[edit] Rise to prominence

[edit] First appearance

Ganesha appeared in his classic form as a clearly-recognizable deity with well-defined iconographic attributes in the early 4th to 5th centuries.[145] Shanti Lal Nagar says that the earliest known iconic image of Ganesha is in the niche of the Shiva temple at Bhumra, which has been dated to the Gupta period.[146] His independent cult appeared by about the 10th century.[145] Narain summarizes the controversy between devotees and academics regarding the development of Ganesha as follows:

[W]hat is inscrutable is the somewhat dramatic appearance of Ganesa on the historical scene. His antecedents are not clear. His wide acceptance and popularity, which transcend sectarian and territorial limits, are indeed amazing. On the one hand there is the pious belief of the orthodox devotees in Ganesa's Vedic origins and in the Pura?ic explanations contained in the confusing, but nonetheless interesting, mythology. On the other hand there are doubts about the existence of the idea and the icon of this deity" before the fourth to fifth century A.D. ... [I]n my opinion, indeed there is no convincing evidence of the existence of this divinity prior to the fifth century.[147]

[edit] Possible influences

Courtright reviews various speculative theories about the early history of Ganesha, including supposed tribal traditions and animal cults, and dismisses all of them in this way:

In this search for a historical origin for Ganesa, some have suggested precise locations outside the Brahma?ic tradition.... These historical locations are intriguing to be sure, but the fact remains that they are all speculations, variations on the Dravidian hypothesis, which argues that anything not attested to in the Vedic and Indo-European sources must have come into Brahma?ic religion from the Dravidian or aboriginal populations of India as part of the process that produced Hinduism out of the interactions of the Aryan and non-Aryan populations. There is no independent evidence for an elephant cult or a totem; nor is there any archaeological data pointing to a tradition prior to what we can already see in place in the Pura?ic literature and the iconography of Ganesa.[148]

Thapan's book on the development of Ganesha devotes a chapter to speculations about the role elephants had in early India but concludes that, "although by the second century AD the elephant-headed yak?a form exists it cannot be presumed to represent Ga?apati-Vinayaka. There is no evidence of a deity by this name having an elephant or elephant-headed form at this early stage. Ga?apati-Vinayaka had yet to make his debut."[149]

One theory of the origin of Ganesha is that he gradually came to prominence in connection with the four Vinayakas (Vinayakas).[150] In Hindu mythology, the Vinayakas were a group of four troublesome demons who created obstacles and difficulties[151] but who were easily propitiated.[152] The name Vinayaka is a common name for Ganesha both in the Pura?as and in Buddhist Tantras.[25] Krishan is one of the academics who accepts this view, stating flatly of Ganesha, "He is a non-vedic god. His origin is to be traced to the four Vinayakas, evil spirits, of the Manavagrhyasutra (7th–4th century BCE) who cause various types of evil and suffering".[153] Depictions of elephant-headed human figures, which some identify with Ganesha, appear in Indian art and coinage as early as the 2nd century.[154] The elephant-headed Ganesha as lord of the Ganas was known to the people of Sri Lanka in the early pre-Christian era.[33]

[edit] Vedic and epic literature

Fifth century marble Ganesha found at Gardez, Afghanistan, now at Dargah Pir Rattan Nath, Kabul. The inscription says that this "great and beautiful image of Mahavinayaka" was consecrated by the Shahi King Khingala.[155]
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The title "Leader of the group" (Sanskrit: ga?apati) occurs twice in the Rig Veda, but in neither case does it refer to the modern Ganesha. The term appears in RV 2.23.1 as a title for Brahmanaspati, according to commentators.[156] While this verse doubtless refers to Brahmanaspati, it was later adopted for worship of Ganesha and is still used today.[157] In rejecting any claim that this passage is evidence of Ganesha in the Rig Veda, Ludo Rocher says that it "clearly refers to B?haspati—who is the deity of the hymn—and B?haspati only".[158] Equally clearly, the second passage (RV 10.112.9) refers to Indra,[159] who is given the epithet 'ga?apati', translated "Lord of the companies (of the Maruts)."[160] However, Rocher notes that the more recent Ganapatya literature often quotes the Rigvedic verses to give Vedic respectability to Ganesha .[161]

Two verses in texts belonging to Black Yajurveda, Maitraya?iya Sa?hita (2.9.1)[162] and Taittiriya Ara?yaka (10.1),[163] appeal to a deity as "the tusked one" (Danti?), "elephant-faced" (Hastimukha), and "with a curved trunk" (Vakratun?a). These names are suggestive of Ganesha, and the 14th century commentator Sayana explicitly establishes this identification.[164] The description of Dantin, possessing a twisted trunk (vakratu??a) and holding a corn-sheaf, a sugar cane, and a club,[165] is so characteristic of the Puranic Ganapati that Heras says "we cannot resist to accept his full identification with this Vedic Dantin".[166] However, Krishan considers these hymns to be post-Vedic additions.[167] Thapan reports that these passages are "generally considered to have been interpolated". Dhavalikar says, "the references to the elephant-headed deity in the Maitraya?i Sa?hita have been proven to be very late interpolations, and thus are not very helpful for determining the early formation of the deity".[168]

Ganesha does not appear in Indian epic literature that is dated to the Vedic period. A late interpolation to the epic poem Mahabharata says that the sage Vyasa (Vyasa) asked Ganesha to serve as his scribe to transcribe the poem as he dictated it to him. Ganesha agreed but only on condition that Vyasa recite the poem uninterrupted, that is, without pausing. The sage agreed, but found that to get any rest he needed to recite very complex passages so Ganesha would have to ask for clarifications. The story is not accepted as part of the original text by the editors of the critical edition of the Mahabharata,[169] in which the twenty-line story is relegated to a footnote in an appendix.[170] The story of Ganesha acting as the scribe occurs in 37 of the 59 manuscripts consulted during preparation of the critical edition.[171] Ganesha's association with mental agility and learning is one reason he is shown as scribe for Vyasa's dictation of the Mahabharata in this interpolation.[172] Richard L. Brown dates the story to the 8th century, and Moriz Winternitz concludes that it was known as early as c. 900, but it was not added to the Mahabharata some 150 years later. Winternitz also notes that a distinctive feature in South Indian manuscripts of the Mahabharata is their omission of this Ganesha legend.[173] The term vinayaka is found in some recensions of the Santiparva and Anusasanaparva that are regarded as interpolations.[174] A reference to Vighnakart?i?am ("Creator of Obstacles") in Vanaparva is also believed to be an interpolation and does not appear in the critical edition.[175]

[edit] Puranic period

Stories about Ganesha often occur in the Puranic corpus. Brown notes while the Puranas "defy precise chronological ordering", the more detailed narratives of Ganesha's life are in the late texts, c. 600–1300.[176] Yuvraj Krishan says that the Puranic myths about the birth of Ganesha and how he acquired an elephant's head are in the later Puranas, which were composed from c. 600 onwards. He elaborates on the matter to say that references to Ganesha in the earlier Puranas, such as the Vayu and Brahmanda Puranas, are later interpolations made during the 7th to 10th centuries.[177]

In his survey of Ganesha's rise to prominence in Sanskrit literature, Ludo Rocher notes that:

Above all, one cannot help being struck by the fact that the numerous stories surrounding Ga?esa concentrate on an unexpectedly limited number of incidents. These incidents are mainly three: his birth and parenthood, his elephant head, and his single tusk. Other incidents are touched on in the texts, but to a far lesser extent.[178]

Ganesha's rise to prominence was codified in the 9th century, when he was formally included as one of the five primary deities of Smartism. The 9th century philosopher Sa?karacarya popularized the "worship of the five forms" (pañcayatana puja) system among orthodox Brahmins of the Smarta tradition.[179] This worship practice invokes the five deities Ganesha, Vishnu, Shiva, Devi, and Surya.[180] Sa?karacarya instituted the tradition primarily to unite the principal deities of these five major sects on an equal status. This formalized the role of Ganesha as a complementary deity.

[edit] Scriptures

Statue of Ganesha with a flower

Once Ganesha was accepted as one of the five principal deities of Brahmanism, some Brahmins (brahma?as) chose to worship Ganesha as their principal deity. They developed the Ganapatya tradition, as seen in the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana.[181]

The date of composition for the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana—and their dating relative to one another—has sparked academic debate. Both works were developed over time and contain age-layered strata. Anita Thapan reviews comments about dating and provides her own judgement. "It seems likely that the core of the Ganesha Purana appeared around the twelfth and thirteenth centuries", she says, "but was later interpolated."[182] Lawrence W. Preston considers the most reasonable date for the Ganesha Purana to be between 1100 and 1400, which coincides with the apparent age of the sacred sites mentioned by the text.[183]

R.C. Hazra suggests that the Mudgala Purana is older than the Ganesha Purana, which he dates between 1100 and 1400.[184] However, Phyllis Granoff finds problems with this relative dating and concludes that the Mudgala Purana was the last of the philosophical texts concerned with Ganesha. She bases her reasoning on the fact that, among other internal evidence, the Mudgala Purana specifically mentions the Ganesha Purana as one of the four Puranas (the Brahma, the Brahmanda, the Ganesha, and the Mudgala Puranas) which deal at length with Ganesha.[185] While the kernel of the text must be old, it was interpolated until the 17th and 18th centuries as the worship of Ganapati became more important in certain regions.[186] Another highly regarded scripture, the Ganapati Atharvashirsa, was probably composed during the 16th or 17th centuries.[187]

[edit] Beyond India and Hinduism

"Dancing Ganesh. Central Tibet. Early fifteenth century. Colours on cotton. Height: 68 centimetres".[188] This form is also known as Maharakta ("The Great Red One").[189]
Ganesha statue in 9th century Prambanan temple, Java, Indonesia

Commercial and cultural contacts extended India's influence in western and southeast Asia. Ganesha is one of many Hindu deities who reached foreign lands as a result.[190]

Ganesha was particularly worshipped by traders and merchants, who went out of India for commercial ventures.[191] The period from approximately the 10th century onwards was marked by the development of new networks of exchange, the formation of trade guilds, and a resurgence of money circulation. During this time, Ganesha became the principal deity associated with traders.[192] The earliest inscription invoking Ganesha before any other deity is associated with the merchant community.[193]

Hindus migrated to the Malay Archipelago and took their culture, including Ganesha, with them.[194] Statues of Ganesha are found throughout the Malay Archipelago in great numbers, often beside Shiva sanctuaries. The forms of Ganesha found in Hindu art of Java, Bali, and Borneo show specific regional influences.[195] The gradual spread of Hindu culture to southeast Asia established Ganesha in modified forms in Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand. In Indochina, Hinduism and Buddhism were practiced side by side, and mutual influences can be seen in the iconography of Ganesha in the region.[196] In Thailand, Cambodia, and among the Hindu classes of the Chams in Vietnam, Ganesha was mainly thought of as a remover of obstacles.[/span>197] Even today in Buddhist Thailand, Ganesha is regarded as a remover of obstacles, the god of success.[197]

Before the arrival of Islam, Afghanistan had close cultural ties with India, and the adoration of both Hindu and Buddhist deities was practiced. A few examples of sculptures from the 5th to the 7th centuries have survived, suggesting that the worship of Ganesha was then in vogue in the region.[198]

Ganesha appears in Mahayana Buddhism, not only in the form of the Buddhist god Vinayaka, but also as a Hindu demon form with the same name.[199] His image appears in Buddhist sculptures during the late Gupta period.[200] As the Buddhist god Vinayaka, he is often shown dancing. This form, called N?tta Ganapati, was popular in northern India, later adopted in Nepal, and then in Tibet.[201] In Nepal, the Hindu form of Ganesha, known as Heramba, is very popular; he has five heads and rides a lion.[202] Tibetan representations of Ganesha show ambivalent views of him.[203] A Tibetan rendering of Ganapati is tshogs bdag.[204] In one Tibetan form, he is shown being trodden under foot by Mahakala, a popular Tibetan deity.[205] Other depictions show him as the Destroyer of Obstacles, sometimes dancing.[206] Ganesha appears in China and Japan in forms that show distinct regional character. In northern China, the earliest known stone statue of Ganesha carries an inscription dated to 531.[207] In Japan, the Ganesha cult was first mentioned in 806.[208]

The canonical literature of Jainism does not mention the worship of Ganesha.[209] However, Ganesha is worshipped by most Jains, for whom he appears to have taken over certain functions of Kubera.[/span>210] Jain connections with the trading community support the idea that Jainism took up Ganesha worship as a result of commercial connections.[211] The earliest known Jain Ganesha statue dates to about the 9th century.[212] A 15th century Jain text lists procedures for the installation of Ganapati images.[209] Images of Ganesha appear in the Jain temples of Rajasthan and Gujarat.[213]]

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