BREAKING LIFE-KNOWLEDGE:....Inspirational dictum of "Never To Give Up"....Alzheimer's disease has a hope for cure ....with Anti-Diabetes Insulin....
Posted by Vishva News Reporter on September 24, 2010



.....Alzheimer's disease....
......a mangling of mind named a century ago,
but is forecast to become epidemic
in an age of wealth making and wealthy living
but marked by soaring rates of obesity and aging.....
A bottle and pills of the diabetes drug, Avandia are seen on July 14, 2010 in Miami, Florida - A bottle and pills of the diabetes drug, Avandia are seen on July 14, 2010 in Miami, Florida | Joe Raedle/Getty Images
the sugar-busting hormone,
the hallowed Canadian discovery and saviour of
(a death sentence pre-1921)
– for Alzheimer's?
Says Peter St George-Hyslop,
a renowned researcher at the University of Toronto, Canada and
University of Cambridge, UK:

       "Some cancers that used to kill can now be cured – in another 50 years,
that's where we'll be with Alzheimer's.

It is far too early to throw our hands up and say,
‘Forget it, nothing's working.'

Says Howard Chertkow, a cognitive neurologist at McGill University.
“The diabetes connection is an old story that was largely ignored.
It was about 30 years ago that
Dr. Suzanne de la Montea,
young neuropathologist at Brown University in Rhode Island,
was hungry to study the role of insulin in the brain,

.....introduced in 1994 the idea of
Alzheimer's being “Type 3 diabetes” of the brain

because insulin helps brain cells talk to one another plus
(as per Dr. Klein at Northwestern) clears waste products that can jam brain functions ....
insulin is crucial to memory and learning....

.....with insulin as a hope for cure for Alzheimer's.”


Please click on the hyperlinked words in PVAF publishing (since last week)
to learn in-depth of all you read to learn.....
the hyperlinked words are in purple-red colour and
when you place your page cursor on the word
it turns colour along with a hand symbol  
clicking which takes you to the knowledge source....  

.....Now please click on the next line to read perhaps the most inspirational medical news story about the potential cure for Alzheimer's and how Dr. Suzanne de la de la Montea led original brainstorm of brain-insulin connection has inspired many scientist to come to today's knowledge-sharing help millions around the planet Earth on which dementia in humans in various forms such as Alzheimer's is forecast to be an epidemic.....


 ....Insulin may hold key to
‘diabetes of the brain'....
(From:  Canadian Globe and Mail: September 24, 2010: Carolyn Abraham, Medical Reporter)

It was a small study, a strange one too, if you came to it cold – 109 people in the early throes of Alzheimer's disease squirted insulin up their noses for four months.

University of Washington researchers who presented it at an international Alzheimer's conference held this summer in Honolulu found the results promising:

      -  People treated with the insulin-based nasal spray showed memory improvements, and no signs of serious side-effects.

Yet it wasn't the result that grabbed headlines so much as the question it raised:

    -  Insulin
the sugar-busting hormone, the hallowed Canadian discovery and saviour of diabetics – for Alzheimer's?

Quite possibly, yes. A growing branch of research suggests that Alzheimer's disease is akin to diabetes of the brain and therapies for one disorder may be useful for both.

Traditionally, diabetes takes two forms:

      -  Type 1, in which the pancreas produces too little insulin to remove destructively high levels of sugar in the blood, and

      -  Type 2, in which the body becomes resistant to using insulin properly.

In Alzheimer's, the theory goes, the aging brain also can develop insulin resistance or suffer from a dwindling insulin supply, damaging neurons and contributing to the widespread destruction of mind.

Says William Klein, a neuroscientist at Northwestern University in Chicago:

         “I think a role of insulin in the brain is to defend against insult. We've been thinking of the root cause, since 1906, as plaques and tangles – but what causes those?”

For years, the idea that amyloid protein trigger Alzheimer's disease has hogged the limelight.

But this theory has yet to produce an effective treatment, so many scientists are hunting for other explanations.

Some have homed in on tau, the protein behind Alzheimer's hallmark tangles of nerve fibres.

Others are probing environmental toxins, infections, even the benefits of electrical brain implants, and there are those who suspect inflammation is the main culprit, making normal brain proteins behave very badly.

To some extent, researchers say the failures have galvanized them. Says Peter St George-Hyslop, a renowned researcher at the University of Toronto and University of Cambridge:

       "Some cancers that used to kill can now be cured – in another 50 years, that's where we'll be with Alzheimer's.
It is far too early to throw our hands up and say, ‘Forget it, nothing's working."

It's against this backdrop of determination that the links between diabetes and Alzheimer's have emerged as a worthy target.

Diabetes is a disease of “sweet pee” first identified by the ancients and Alzheimer's a mangling of mind named a century ago, but both are forecast to become epidemics in an age marked by soaring rates of obesity and aging.

Says Howard Chertkow, a cognitive neurologist at McGill University.

       “The diabetes connection is an old story that was largely ignored. It was about 30 years ago that Dr. Suzanne de la Monte at Brown introduced the idea of Alzheimer's being diabetes of the brain ... Now, it's coming back.”

Insulin on the brain

Dr. Suzanne de la Monte

In the 1980s, Dr. de la Monte was working on insulin and the liver when she decided: “I don't care about the liver.”

As a major player in metabolism, the liver is a primary site for the study of insulin, which Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Best first isolated at the University of Toronto in 1921. Before that, diabetes was a death sentence.

But Dr. de la Monte, a young neuropathologist at Brown University in Rhode Island, was hungry to study the role of insulin in the brain, and could find no relevant research.

The hormone insulin helps the body's cells convert glucose to energy, but scientists did not believe this applied to the brain, so she began her own experiments.

She chronicled how human brain cells in a petri dish die when starved of insulin, and wondered what happens in the brain when insulin is in short supply. By injecting rats with an antibiotic that happens to block insulin, she managed to give the animals “diabetes of the brain.”

But the post mortems stunned her – the rats' brains were riddled with dead cells, plaques and tangled nerve fibres. “Oh my god,” she said, “this is Alzheimer's disease.”

In 1994, Dr. de la Monte boldly published a paper declaring Alzheimer's to be “Type 3 diabetes.”

“I got a lot of flack for that,” she recalls. “But as a concept, I believe it's right … Diabetes is like one disease that can affect different parts of the body.”

Diabetes is known to cause cardiovascular problems that can hamper blood flow to the brain and contribute to vascular dementia.

But its role in Alzheimer's is less clear, although it's known that diabetics face as a much as a 70-per-cent higher risk of getting Alzheimer's – another good reason, scientists say, people should stay fit.

But not all Alzheimer's patients are diabetic, and Dr. de la Monte believes insulin resistance in the brain can develop regardless of whether a person has diabetes.

She has found that the hormone is crucial to memory and learning, that nerve fibres stretching between them are “studded with insulin receptors” and that the hormone is crucial to memory and learning.

At first, she says, her work received little attention because it did not jibe with the plaque-as-key-perpetrator hypothesis: “I would never say amyloid has no role, but it may have a role if something else is already wrong.”

In the 1980s, neuropathologist Patrick McGeer, now professor emeritus at the University of British Columbia, also found that Alzheimer's and diabetes have common features.

His team discovered that diabetics have inflammation and amyloid plaque build-up in the pancreas, just as people with Alzheimer's have in their brains.

But he is not convinced that insulin drives the disease. “It's peripheral,” he says, adding that an insulin treatment for Alzheimer's could be dangerous since too much insulin in the brain “would be toxic.”

Medication stumbled

Last year, GlaxoSmithKline tried its controversial diabetes drug Avandia as a treatment for Alzheimer's, since it helps the body make better use of its own insulin. But the company concluded it was no better than standard treatment and halted development.

Dr. de la Monte felt the test subjects did improve, but that the doses they were being given were too high.

Others, such as Dr. Klein at Northwestern, say that Avandia, as with most failed Alzheimer's therapies, was given too late in the disease to make a difference.

Dr. Klein has investigated insulin's role in Alzheimer's for more than a decade, and he believes a shortage of it contributes to the buildup of amyloid plaque, which in effect unites the competing theories.

He also is a diabetic himself, and “I can tell you that too little or too much insulin leads to confusion.”

He also notes that the hippocampus, the brain's key memory region and notoriously vulnerable to Alzheimer's, has a widespread network of insulin receptors and that insulin not only helps neurons communicate, it clears waste products that can jam brain function.

Many others have found links between insulin and Alzheimer's since Dr. de la Monte coined the controversial term “Type 3 diabetes.”

Autopsy studies, for instance, show that Alzheimer's patients have low levels of insulin in the brain, which University of Kansas researchers suggest is related to brain damage and poor cognition – and contribute to tau, the protein behind the nerve tangles common in the disease.

Last month, a team from Japan reported that people with low insulin levels were nearly six times more likely to have the brain plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Dr. St George-t the U of T agrees that insulin's role has moved in from the fringes, but says that “it's hard to understand if it is the main thing, or a secondary thing.” He believes Alzheimer's can take subtly different forms, with insulin perhaps important in some cases and less so in others.

Despite all the failed drug trials it has spawned, Dr. de la Monte suspects plaque theory will rule the research roost for some time. She says:

       “The train will keep driving in this direction because it has so much power and force behind it, but  that's fine – it gives me more time to work.”

At the moment, she is trying the experiment that was reported in Hawaii, by having Alzheimer's patients at Brown inhale insulin.

“I don't think the nasal spray is the answer,” she says, “but if the concept gets legs, that's when the creativity kicks in.”

.....More related to today's
life-knowledge sharing...

by emailing the webpage link address of this knowledge-sharing .....

Dr. Suzanne de la Monte, M.D., M.P.H
Neuropathologist, Rhode Island Hospital
Associate Professor of Pathology and Medicine,
Brown University, Rhodes Island, UWA
(From: Brown Forum Enterprises: The mission of the Brown Forum for Enterprise is to foster a culture
of innovation and enterprise within Rhode Island and to be a focus
for entrepreneurship activity within the state and region.)

Suzanne de la Monte has had a major research interest in studying the roles of insulin and insulin like growth factors in relation to brain function since 1994.

Suzanne was probably the first to recognize the importance of insulin as a factor mediating the survival of neurons in the central nervous system, and the consequences of impaired insulin actions on brain development and function.

Her research led to the discoveries that the insulin gene is expressed in the brain, and that in Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegeneration is associated with brain insulin deficiency as well as brain insulin resistance. The absence of associated Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, led to the term, “Type 3 Diabetes”, to reflect the selective brain insulin deficiency and insulin resistance in Alzheimer’s disease.

Suzanne’s research has also demonstrated a connection between brain insulin or insulin like growth factor resistance and other forms of neurodegeneration such as alcoholic brain disease. These paradigm shifting concepts could lead to novel approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, and possibly other types of dementia. Suzanne actively engages Brown Undergraduate and Medical Students in these dynamic research efforts.

Suzanne received both her B.A. and M.D. from Cornell University. She later received a Masters in Public Health (MPH) from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.

Suzanne did a residency in Anatomic Pathology at Johns Hopkins and a second residency in Neuropathology at Massachusetts General Hospital.

She also did a postdoctoral fellowship in Molecular and Cell Biology at Massachusetts General Hospital. Suzanne was a member of the faculty at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School until 2000; from 2000 to the present, Suzanne has been a member of the Faculty at Rhode Island Hospital and the Brown Medical School.

From: BrownNeurosurgeryFoundation

Dr. Suzanne de la Monte is an associate professor (research) of pathology at Brown. Board-certified in anatomic pathology, with special qualification in neuropathology, she works as an associate pathologist and neuropathologist at both Rhode Island Hospital and the Miriam Hospital. In addition, she serves as a neuropathology consultant to the Rhode Island State Medical Examiner. Dr. de la Monte has been named an associate editor of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease as well as a member of numerous NIH study sections.

In her research, Dr. de la Monte is using a rat glioblastoma model to determine whether immunogene therapy can boost the body’s defenses against brain tumors. She is also evaluating the ability of gene or stem cell therapy to repair ischemic brain injuries. Professor de la Monte received the 2000 Alzheimer Medal for her paper showing that cerebrovascular injury contributes to the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease.

What is the Neurosurgery Foundation?
The Neurosurgery Foundation is an academic group of physicians specializing in neurosurgery and neuro-oncology. In addition to providing patient care, as faculty members at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, we conduct research and train residents. Our services and facilities have drawn patients from all over New England and the nation, as well as from outside the United States.We diagnose and treat disorders of the nervous system—the brain, spine, spinal cord, and nerves throughout the body. Don’t let our name mislead you; we provide nonsurgical as well as surgical treatments.

There are 0 additional comments.


Send your news items to be posted to

If you have any questions or comments about this web site, send mail to Bhavin Mistry.    
© 1997-2003 Prajaapati Vishva Aashram Foundation.    
Site Design by Helios Logistics Inc.