|BREAKING LIFE-KNOWLEDGE:....Inspirational dictum of "Never To Give Up"....Alzheimer's disease has a hope for cure ....with Anti-Diabetes Insulin.... |
Posted by Vishva News Reporter on September 24, 2010
......a mangling of mind named a
but is forecast to become epidemic
in an age of wealth making and wealthy living
but marked by soaring rates of obesity and aging.....
|Says Peter St George-Hyslop,
a renowned researcher at the University of Toronto, Canada and
University of Cambridge, UK:
cancers that used to kill can now be cured – in another 50 years,
where we'll be with Alzheimer's.
It is far too early to throw our hands up and say,
‘Forget it, nothing's working.'
Says Howard Chertkow, a cognitive neurologist at McGill University.
“The diabetes connection is an old story that was largely ignored.
about 30 years ago that Dr. Suzanne de la Montea,
young neuropathologist at Brown
University in Rhode Island,
was hungry to study the role of insulin in the brain,
.....introduced in 1994 the idea
Alzheimer's being “Type 3 diabetes” of the brain
because insulin helps brain cells talk to
one another plus
(as per Dr.
Klein at Northwestern) clears waste products
that can jam brain functions ....
insulin is crucial to memory and learning....
.....with insulin as a hope for cure for
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.....Now please click on the next line to read perhaps the most
inspirational medical news story about the potential cure for
Alzheimer's and how Dr. Suzanne de la de la Montea
led original brainstorm of
brain-insulin connection has inspired many scientist to come to today's
knowledge-sharing news...to help millions around the planet Earth on
which dementia in humans in various forms such as Alzheimer's is
to be an epidemic.....
ON SCROLLING FOR THE LIFE-KNOWLEDGE
THAT COULD MAKE A
IN YOUR OWN LIFE
......COULD INSPIRE YOU
....TO RESEARCH THE HOPE OF
FINDING AN INSULIN CURE FOR ALZHEIMER'S....
....Insulin may hold key to
‘diabetes of the brain'....
Globe and Mail:
September 24, 2010: Carolyn Abraham, Medical Reporter)
It was a small study, a strange one too, if you came to it cold – 109
people in the early throes of
squirted insulin up
their noses for four months.
University of Washington researchers who presented it at an
international Alzheimer's conference held this summer in Honolulu found
the results promising:
- People treated with the
insulin-based nasal spray
showed memory improvements, and no signs of serious side-effects.
Yet it wasn't the result that grabbed headlines so much as the question
- Insulin –
the sugar-busting hormone, the hallowed Canadian
discovery and saviour of diabetics – for Alzheimer's?
Quite possibly, yes. A growing branch of research suggests that
Alzheimer's disease is akin to diabetes of the brain and therapies for
one disorder may be useful for both.
Traditionally, diabetes takes two forms:
- Type 1, in which the pancreas
produces too little insulin to remove destructively high levels of sugar
in the blood, and
- Type 2, in which the body becomes resistant to using
In Alzheimer's, the theory goes,
the aging brain also can develop
insulin resistance or suffer from a dwindling insulin supply, damaging
neurons and contributing to the widespread destruction of mind.
Says William Klein, a neuroscientist at Northwestern University in
“I think a role of insulin in the brain is to defend against insult. We've been thinking of the root cause, since 1906, as plaques
and tangles – but what causes those?”
For years, the idea that
amyloid protein trigger
Alzheimer's disease has hogged the limelight.
But this theory has yet to
produce an effective treatment, so many scientists are hunting for other
Some have homed in on
tau, the protein behind Alzheimer's hallmark
tangles of nerve fibres.
Others are probing environmental toxins,
infections, even the benefits of electrical brain implants, and there
are those who suspect inflammation is the main culprit, making normal
brain proteins behave very badly.
To some extent, researchers say the failures have galvanized them. Says Peter St George-Hyslop,
a renowned researcher at the University of Toronto and University of
cancers that used to kill can now be cured – in another 50 years, that's
where we'll be with Alzheimer's. It is far too early to
throw our hands up and say, ‘Forget it, nothing's working."
It's against this backdrop of determination that the links between
diabetes and Alzheimer's have emerged as a worthy target.
Diabetes is a disease of “sweet pee” first identified by the ancients
and Alzheimer's a
mangling of mind named a century ago, but both are forecast to become
epidemics in an age marked by soaring rates of obesity and aging.
Says Howard Chertkow, a cognitive neurologist at McGill University.
“The diabetes connection is an old
story that was largely ignored. It was
about 30 years ago that
Dr. Suzanne de la Monte
at Brown introduced the idea
of Alzheimer's being diabetes of the brain ... Now, it's coming back.”
Insulin on the brain
Dr. Suzanne de la Monte
In the 1980s, Dr. de la Monte was working on insulin and the liver when
she decided: “I don't care about the
As a major player in metabolism, the liver is a primary site for the
study of insulin, which Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Best
first isolated at the University of Toronto in 1921. Before that,
diabetes was a death sentence.
But Dr. de la Monte, a young neuropathologist at Brown University in
Rhode Island, was hungry to study the role of insulin in the brain, and
could find no relevant research.
The hormone insulin helps the body's cells
convert glucose to energy, but scientists did not believe this applied
to the brain, so she began her own experiments.
She chronicled how human brain cells in a petri dish die when starved of
insulin, and wondered what happens in the brain when insulin is in short
supply. By injecting rats with an antibiotic that happens to block
insulin, she managed to give the animals “diabetes of the brain.”
But the post mortems stunned her – the rats' brains were riddled with
dead cells, plaques and tangled nerve fibres. “Oh my god,” she said,
“this is Alzheimer's disease.”
|In 1994, Dr. de la Monte boldly published a paper declaring
Alzheimer's to be “Type 3 diabetes.”
“I got a lot of flack for that,” she recalls. “But as a concept, I
believe it's right … Diabetes is like one disease that can affect
different parts of the body.”
Diabetes is known to cause cardiovascular problems that can hamper blood
flow to the brain and contribute to vascular
But its role in
Alzheimer's is less clear, although it's known that
diabetics face as a much as a 70-per-cent higher risk of getting
Alzheimer's – another good
reason, scientists say, people should stay fit.
But not all Alzheimer's patients are diabetic, and Dr. de la Monte
believes insulin resistance in the brain can develop regardless of
whether a person has diabetes.
She has found that the hormone is crucial to
nerve fibres stretching between them are “studded with insulin
receptors” and that the hormone is crucial to memory and learning.
first, she says, her work received little attention because it did not
jibe with the plaque-as-key-perpetrator hypothesis: “I would never say
amyloid has no role, but it may have a role if something else is already
In the 1980s, neuropathologist Patrick McGeer, now professor emeritus at
the University of British Columbia, also found that Alzheimer's and
diabetes have common features.
His team discovered that diabetics have
inflammation and amyloid plaque build-up in the
pancreas, just as people
with Alzheimer's have in their brains.
But he is not convinced that
insulin drives the disease. “It's peripheral,” he says, adding that an
insulin treatment for Alzheimer's could be dangerous since too much
insulin in the brain “would be toxic.”
Last year, GlaxoSmithKline tried its controversial diabetes
as a treatment for Alzheimer's, since it helps the body make better use
of its own insulin. But the company concluded it was no better than
standard treatment and halted development.
Dr. de la Monte felt the test subjects did improve, but that the doses
they were being given were too high.
Others, such as Dr. Klein at
Northwestern, say that Avandia, as with most failed Alzheimer's
therapies, was given too late in the disease to make a difference.
Dr. Klein has investigated insulin's role in Alzheimer's
for more than a
decade, and he believes a shortage of it contributes to the buildup of amyloid plaque, which in effect unites the competing theories.
is a diabetic himself, and “I can tell you that too little or too much
insulin leads to confusion.”
He also notes that the
hippocampus, the brain's key memory region and
notoriously vulnerable to Alzheimer's,
has a widespread network of
insulin receptors and that insulin not only helps neurons communicate,
it clears waste products that can jam brain function.
Many others have found links between insulin and Alzheimer's since Dr.
de la Monte coined the controversial term “Type 3 diabetes.”
Autopsy studies, for instance, show that Alzheimer's patients have low
levels of insulin in the brain, which University of Kansas researchers
suggest is related to brain damage and poor cognition – and contribute
to tau, the protein behind the nerve tangles common in the disease.
Last month, a team from Japan reported that people with low insulin
levels were nearly six times more likely to have the brain plaques
associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Dr. St George-t the U of T agrees that insulin's role has moved
in from the fringes, but says that “it's hard to understand if it is the
main thing, or a secondary thing.” He believes Alzheimer's can take
subtly different forms, with insulin perhaps important in some cases and
less so in others.
Despite all the failed drug trials it has spawned, Dr. de la Monte
suspects plaque theory will rule the research roost for some time. She
train will keep driving in this direction because it has so much power
and force behind it, but that's fine – it gives me
more time to work.”
At the moment, she is trying the experiment that was reported in Hawaii,
by having Alzheimer's patients at Brown inhale insulin.
“I don't think the nasal spray is the answer,” she says, “but if the
concept gets legs, that's when the creativity kicks in.”
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|Suzanne de la Monte has had a major research interest in studying
the roles of insulin and insulin like growth factors in relation to
brain function since 1994.
Suzanne was probably the first to recognize
the importance of insulin as a factor mediating the survival of neurons
in the central nervous system, and the consequences of impaired insulin
actions on brain development and function.
Her research led to the
discoveries that the insulin gene is expressed in the brain, and that in
Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegeneration is associated with brain insulin
deficiency as well as brain insulin resistance. The absence of
associated Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, led to the term, “Type 3
Diabetes”, to reflect the selective brain insulin deficiency and insulin
resistance in Alzheimer’s disease.
Suzanne’s research has also
demonstrated a connection between brain insulin or insulin like growth
factor resistance and other forms of neurodegeneration such as alcoholic
brain disease. These paradigm shifting concepts could lead to novel
approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, and
possibly other types of dementia. Suzanne actively engages Brown
Undergraduate and Medical Students in these dynamic research efforts.
Suzanne received both her B.A. and M.D. from Cornell University. She
later received a Masters in Public Health (MPH) from the Johns Hopkins
School of Hygiene and Public Health.
Suzanne did a residency in Anatomic
Pathology at Johns Hopkins and a second residency in Neuropathology at
Massachusetts General Hospital.
She also did a postdoctoral fellowship
in Molecular and Cell Biology at Massachusetts General Hospital. Suzanne
was a member of the faculty at Massachusetts General Hospital and
Harvard Medical School until 2000; from 2000 to the present, Suzanne has
been a member of the Faculty at Rhode Island Hospital and the Brown
Dr. Suzanne de la Monte is an associate professor (research) of
pathology at Brown. Board-certified in anatomic pathology, with special
qualification in neuropathology, she works as an associate pathologist
and neuropathologist at both Rhode Island Hospital and the Miriam
Hospital. In addition, she serves as a neuropathology consultant to the
Rhode Island State Medical Examiner. Dr. de la Monte has been named an
associate editor of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease as well as a
member of numerous NIH study sections.
In her research, Dr. de la Monte is using a rat glioblastoma model to
determine whether immunogene therapy can boost the body’s defenses
against brain tumors. She is also evaluating the ability of gene or stem
cell therapy to repair ischemic brain injuries. Professor de la Monte
received the 2000 Alzheimer Medal for her paper showing that
cerebrovascular injury contributes to the clinical manifestations of
What is the Neurosurgery Foundation?
The Neurosurgery Foundation is an academic group of physicians
specializing in neurosurgery and neuro-oncology. In addition to
providing patient care, as faculty members at The Warren Alpert Medical
School of Brown University, we conduct research and train residents. Our
services and facilities have drawn patients from all over New England
and the nation, as well as from outside the United States.We diagnose
and treat disorders of the nervous system—the brain, spine, spinal cord,
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