EXTREME CUTTING-EDGE SCIENCE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY....is revealing the inherent creative and operational powers of Life created by Nature and its Creator.
Posted by Champaklal Dajibhai Mistry on August 21, 2012


.......for most of us for the first time....

Image of surface reconstruction on a clean Gold (Au) (100) surface, as visualized using scanning tunneling microscopy. The individual atoms composing the material are visible. Surface reconstruction causes the surface atoms to deviate from the bulk crystal structure, and arrange in columns several atoms wide with regularly-spaced pits between them. (Atomically resolved STM image of clean Au(100). This image is made with an Omicron Low Temperature STM and RHK Technology electronics by Erwin Rossen, Eindhoven University of Technology, 2006. Parameters: p<1e-11 mbar, T=77 K, I_setpoint=6 nA, V_bias=1 mV, Au(100) surface is Ar sputtered (1,5 kV, 2uA, 30 minutes) and annealed (500°C, 30 minutes)).

.....taking the study of
Biology of Life and  Life's Genome
to the nth level....
YouTube Preview Image
.....DID YOU KNOW.....
Nanotechnology was a term popularised by K. Eric Drexler’s highly influential work of speculative nonfiction Engines of Creation (1987), often abbreviated to ‘‘nanotech’’ and readily giving rise to such derivatives as ‘‘nanoware’’ and ‘‘nanobots’’ (nanotechnological robots). Engines of Creation summarised a train of thought that Drexler had first set in motion in ‘‘Molecular Engineering: An Approach to the Development of General Capabilities for Molecular Manipulation’’ (1981), although similar ideas had previously been broached in Richard Feynman’s essay ‘‘There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom’’ (1961, in H. D. Gilbert’s Miniaturization). Nanotechnology is a drastic extrapolation of the notion of technological miniaturisation, proposing the development and use of extremely tiny machines capable of manipulating individual atoms and molecules, simulating and vastly extending the ‘‘natural molecular technologies’’ used by living cells to manufacture proteins, organs, and whole bodies.....click here to keep on reading more....


...THAT children younger than two
wwill not reject a heart from a donor with a different blood type...
 ....THAT stealth nano-particles with the antigens, or markers, br /> that blood cells use to recognize each other,
when introduced into the bloodstream can teach
the body to tolerate every blood type....

.....An with this technology, the nano-particles could eventually be in
the standard set of shots that children receive.
Later, if you ever had to have an organ transplant or a transfusion,
you wouldn’t have to wait for the right blood type one
– you could just take any donor organ....

-says Dr. Buriak, a senior research officer at
 Edmonton’s National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT)....
who hopes to move to more advanced models by 2015...
Dr. Jillian Buriak has earned this year's Martha Cook Piper Award.
Jillian Buriak’ Professor & Senior Research Officer, National Institute for Nanotechnology, at one of her University of Alberta labs, in Edmonton, on September 30, 2011, for a Shaping the Future story. She was also proclaimed as "Canada's Top 40 Under 40" in Chemistry in 2003...And also is Canada Research Chair in Inorganic and Nanoscale Materials Department of Chemistry University of Alberta and has from Harvard University: AB (1986-90), Université Louis Pasteur: DEA/PhD *1991-95), The Scripps Research Institute: NSERC Post-doc (1995-97),
.....And there is more  similar exciting Life-Knowledge discovery news from the evolving world of nanotechnology  for PVAF share with your today...Life-Knowledge to give hope for the potential to take away many of the life's suffering and pain with Knowledge of how life works through Life-sciences .......and as usual to base your hope on realistic life expectations do not forget to click on the hyperlinked words to learn the Life-sciences thereof to the depth that suits your lifestyle choices....
....just click on the next line to go to the next webpage for your knowledge quest today..

Safety Impacts Of Nanotechnology
.....the future of which is a potential for fighting
human poverty of physical suffering and pain at quantum level of life....
...where every things exists with a probability....
.....the human spirit of Innovation...
is what keep life on a path to prosperity of
well-being, welfare
continually removing all life poverties...
....and through Innovation....
.....Nanotechnology coming to
your doctor’s office.....

(From:  Canada's Globe and Mail: October 4, 2011: Nick Rockel)
(...in-depth KNOLWEDGE providing hyperlinks, photos and term explanations in small font italics were created by
PVAF as per its mandate to spread Life-sciences Knowledge to entire humanity
on the timeless borderless internet plateform...
Inside Jillian Buriak’s laboratory, it’s a small world.

Jillian Buriak, Professor & Senior Research Officer, National Institute for Nanotechnology, at one of her University of Alberta labs, in Edmonton, on September 30, 2011, for a Shaping the Future story. John Ulan for The Globe and Mail - Jillian Buriak, Professor & Senior Research Officer, National Institute for Nanotechnology, at one of her University of Alberta labs, in Edmonton, on September 30, 2011, for a Shaping the Future story. John Ulan for The Globe and Mail | John Ulan
Dr. Jillian Buriak (Globe and Mail John Ulan)

A University of Alberta chemistry professor and a senior research officer at Edmonton’s National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT), Dr. Buriak manipulates silicon and other materials at the nano scale – between one and 100 nanometers in size.

Just how tiny is that? Think of it this way: A grain of sand measures one million nanometres across.

Dr. Buriak is one of many scientists who are applying nanotechnology to medicine. Since 2005, she has worked with a multidisciplinary team trying to solve the problem of rejection in organ transplants due to blood incompatibility.

People keep asking when her field will deliver a killer app like the cure for cancer.

Dr. Buriak says. “But what nanotechnology has done more than anything else is bring people together who normally would never talk to each other,” she explains.

Over the past decade, nano-medicine has moved out of the research lab and into the doctor’s office, in products such as anti-cancer drugs and wound dressings. But scientists are just starting to tap its potential for everything from drug delivery to disease diagnosis.

One of Dr. Buriak’s key collaborators on the transplantation project is Lori West, a U of A professor of pediatrics, surgery and immunology. Dr. West, a renowned cardiac transplant expert, is known for her discovery that children younger than two will not reject a heart from a donor with a different blood type.

Lori West
Dr. Lori West, MD.

That’s because the immune system is still developing during infancy. Even more remarkably, if a baby with Type A blood gets a Type B heart, it will develop a lifelong tolerance for B and AB blood.

The U of A team “functionalized” so-called stealth nano-particles with the antigens, or markers, that blood cells use to recognize each other. In animal tests, it introduced these particles into the bloodstream in an attempt to teach the body to tolerate every blood type.

Dr. Buriak, who hopes to move to more advanced models by 2015, says the nano-particles could eventually join the standard set of shots that children receive. “Later, if you ever had to have an organ transplant or a blood transfusion, you wouldn’t have to wait for the right one – you could just take any of them.”

At the University of Toronto, chemist Shana Kelley leads nanotech research that includes better disease testing. Dr. Kelley, who works across four U of T faculties, says widespread adoption of nano-medicine is on the horizon. With all paradigm shifts in science, Dr. Kelley explains, practical applications gain momentum after a long period of basic research. “There’s an inflection point, and I think we’re nearing that inflection point.” ("Inflection point" means:An event that results in a significant change in the progress of a company, industry, sector, economy or geopolitical situation. An inflection point can be considered a turning point after which a dramatic change, with either positive or negative results, is expected to result. Companies, industries, sectors and economies are dynamic and constantly evolving. Inflection points are more significant than the small day-to-day progress that is made and the effects of the change are often well-known and widespread.)

Dr. Shana Kelley

For seven years, Dr. Kelley and her colleagues have been developing nano-scale sensors for biomarkers of cancer and other diseases. They’ve found a way to print nano-materials on the surface of microchips, then attach these sensors to molecules that will bind to the samples they want to test.

“There’s a dramatic difference [from] using a nano-material-based sensor versus a more conventional type of sensor,” Dr. Kelley says. “It allows you to get right down to very low levels of the molecules that are markers of disease.”

Dr. Kelley’s group has already filed patents, licensed its intellectual property and started a company. The next step: two years of development work to make the technology robust enough for approval by Health Canada or the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Then it may just be a few months away from being able to let clinicians use it,” she says.


Meanwhile, scientists at the Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago are fighting disease with nanotech. At the laboratory’s Center for Nanoscale Materials, the NanoBio Interfaces Group began by integrating titanium dioxide nano-particles with biomolecules so it could target sites in unwanted cells and destroy the cells by applying visible light. It then added cell-killing magnetic material to its repertoire

Having proven that this method works against dental pathogens and illnesses such as psoriasis, group leader Dr. Tijana Rajh and her team are now focusing on brain cancer and  head and neck cancer. “It could be applied in oncology, cardiology whatever we want to get rid of specifically in the body, we can do it,” says assistant scientist Dr. Elena Rozhkova.

Tijana RajhElena Rozhkova
Photo Left: Dr. Tijana Rajh ; Photo Right: Dr. Elena Rozhkova. (click each name for her work and personal biography)

Toronto-based Tornado Medical Systems, a medical imaging and spectroscopy startup, plans to unveil its first nano-medicine prototype next January. Current spectrometers are bulky, expensive instruments that rely on lenses, mirrors and fibre optics. But the next generation will be on computer chips, says molecular geneticist Frédéric Sweeney, Tornado’s vice-president for business development and strategy.

The company has developed a chip-sized nano-photonics spectrometer with technology licensed from Cornell University electrical and computer engineering professor Dr, Michal Lipson. Spectrometers on chips are more durable and much cheaper to produce, says Dr. Sweeney, who notes that Tornado also has ideas for diagnostic tools to follow its imaging device.

Dr. Michal Lipson PhD (Physics, 1998)Cornell University electrical and computer engineering professor.  Lipson's group investigates the physics and application of nanoscale photonic structures. In particular we are interested in light confining structures that can slow down, enhance and manipulate light. These structures can enhance light-matter interaction by orders of magnitude, enabling the devices; optical properties to be controlled externally, either optically or electro-optically. The structures developed will provide the basic building blocks for an all-optical circuit where passive as well as active components could be integrated on a single chip.

Within a decade, he hopes, physicians will have point-of-care tests for diagnosing heart attacks and other conditions on the spot. “If we can develop tests that allow us to make these go/no-go decisions much faster, I think it’s going to significantly increase efficiencies in hospitals,” Dr. Sweeney says.

Back in Edmonton, David Wishart thinks the most interesting nano-scale devices are biological systems. Dr. Wishart, a professor in the University of Alberta’s departments of computer science and biological science, heads nano life sciences research at NINT.

Dr. David Wishart

Among other projects, his group has created nano “robots” by altering the genetic makeup of bacteria so they change colour when exposed to certain chemicals. Building on existing “lab on chip” technology, Dr. Wishart aims to install such biosensors on a device the size of a USB key. After inserting a blood, urine or water sample into this portable lab, the user could read the results on a laptop.

Dr. Wishart laments the lack of progress in modernizing medical testing through nano and other new technologies. “They’ve all basically died, partly because of the red tape but also the lack of interest or vision or motivation by the medical community,” he says. “We just don’t have a process in North America or even in Europe to get these things into practice.”

Nano-meds in action

Here are three commercially available nano-medicine products, from the online inventory of the Washington-based Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies:

Abraxane, a cancer treatment: Developed by Los Angeles-based Abraxis BioScience Inc., it won approval from the Food and Drug Administration in 2005. It targets advanced breast cancer by delivering its active agent in a nanoparticle coating.

Vitoss, for bone replacement: Surgeons use this synthetic biomaterial/a> from Rthovita Inc., a Pennsylvania-based orthobiologics and biosurgery company, to perform bone grafts..

Acticoat, for wound dressing: Introduced in 1998, this antimicrobial barrier dressing/a> contains silver nanoparticles. Smith & Nephew licenses Acticoat’s technology from Nucryst Pharmaceuticals Corp., a company that does nanocrystalline research and development and manufacturing in Fort Saskatchewan, Alta.
.......and now just to needle your inquisitiveness....
befor you say Goodbye PVAF today.....
did you know this of our known human history.....
 .....recorded history of
human organ transplantation.... 
File:Beinwunder Cosmas und Damian.jpg
Wikipedia (Painting: Ditzingen, 16th century)/span>
Roman Catholic accounts report the 3rd-century saints Damian and Cosmas as replacing the gangrenous leg of the Roman deacon Justinian with the leg of a recently deceased Ethiopian.. SeveraL apocryphal accounts of transplants exist well prior to the scientific understanding and advancements that would be necessary for them to have actually occurred. The Chinese physician Pien Chi'ao reportedly exchanged hearts between a man of strong spirit but weak will with one of a man of weak spirit but strong will in an attempt to achieve balance in each man. Most accounts have the saints performing the transplant in the 4th century, decades after their deaths; some accounts have them only instructing living surgeons who performed the procedure. The more likely accounts of early transplants deal with skin transplantation. The first reasonable account is of the Indian surgeon Sushruta in the 2nd century BC, who used autografted skin transplantation in nose reconstruction rhinoplasty....read the comprehensive overview of history of organ transplantation from antiquity to todate by clicking here....


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