|SECRET OF ALEIN EXISTENCE IN YOUR BODY BEING REVEALED....you have "microbiome" fellow travelers in your body outnumbering your cells 1 to 10..... |
Posted by Vishva News Reporter on February 21, 2012
.....DID YOU KNOW THAT....
- Your body has 100 trillion
cells of which
- 90 trillion cells are not your own... meaning not forming
your body parts
- but are of organisms who are your fellow travelers in
your own body.....
- and are bacteria, viruses, fungi and a panoply of
- and the 90 trillion organisms have figured out
a way to network with our body's immune system
so your immune system doesn’t attack them....
|The latest life-sciences research shows that these fellow travelers
in your body whom we have named as "microbiome" are the microbial
ecosystems that have long populated our guts, mouths, noses and every
other nook and cranny play crucial roles in keeping us healthy....
|....And that modern trends — diet, antibiotics, obsession with
cleanliness, Caesarean delivery of babies — are disrupting this delicate
balance, contributing to some of the most perplexing ailments, including
asthma, allergies, obesity, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, cancer and
perhaps even autism.....
|....And that one intriguing
finding is that babies born through Caesarean sections
apparently miss out on acquiring their mothers’ fellow traveler microbiota.....
|....And a wow moment!!!!!....Intriguing clues also are emerging about how
these microbe fellow travelers may affect the
brain..... Bacteria in the gut appear to influence brain chemistry, and
corresponding behaviors such as anxiety, stress and depression....“This may have implications for new lines of thinking to address some of
the psychiatric problems you see among humans....Together with genetic
susceptibility, this may influence what doctors classify as autism or
....In summery....Some equate these microbial inhabitants
to a newly recognized organ.
Acquired beginning at birth, this mass of fellow travelers
molding immune systems and
fundamental metabolic functions such as
energy storage and consumption.
There are even tantalizing clues
they may help shape
|PVAF presents the above summary of today's sharing of emerging
Knowledge to get you excited to make pursuing Knowledge
the prime objective of your life....and thus empowering yourself you
meet all your life's wish-desire-wants because Knowledge also gets you
wealth without which even life-happiness in not possible as per lots of
Without much further ado....to get the full report on the above summary
and also get in-depth Knowledge fitting your lifestyle needs through
hyperlinked Knowledge sources...please travel to the next webpage in
your quest for a happier tomorrow simply because you are gaining more
Life-Knowledge today which you can use for yourself and your fellow
is a good day to keep on scrolling....
.... for your Knowledge quest....
... to know your own body
the 90 trillion microbiome guests you host/support daily in your body....
...of course without charge!!!!!..or
Human gene catalog reveals body is mostly a mystery....
Scientists have looked at 178 different microbes and
discovered that more than 90 percent of
their genetic sequences are unknown....
click on the photo
source above to read more....
....A look at microbes in the human body.....
....Microbes may play crucial role in human
|Consider this: The average person’s body
contains about 100 trillion
cells, but only maybe one in 10 is human.
This isn’t the latest Hollywood horror flick, or some secret genetic
engineering experiment run amok.
This, it turns out, is nature’s way: The human cells that form our skin,
eyes, ears, brain and every other part of our bodies are far outnumbered
by those from microbes, primarily
bacteria but also
fungi and a
panoply of other microorganisms.
That thought might make a lot of people lunge for the hand sanitizer, at
the least. But that predictable impulse may be exactly the wrong one. A
growing body of evidence indicates that the microbial
have long populated our guts, mouths, noses and every other nook and
cranny play crucial roles in keeping us healthy.
Moreover, researchers are becoming more convinced that modern trends —
diet, antibiotics, obsession with cleanliness, Caesarean delivery of
babies — are disrupting this delicate balance, contributing to some of
the most perplexing ailments, including
cancer and perhaps even
“In terms of potential for human health, I would place it with stem
cells as one of the two most promising areas of research at the moment,”
Rob Knight of the University of Colorado. “We’re seeing an
unprecedented rate of discovery. Everywhere we look, microbes seem to be
Equipped with super-fast new
DNA decoders, scientists are accelerating
the exploration of this realm at a
molecular level, yielding provocative
insights into how these microbial stowaways may wield far greater powers
than previously appreciated in, paradoxically, making us human.
“The field has exploded,” said Jeffrey
I. Gordon of Washington
University, who pioneered the exploration of humanity’s microbial
inhabitants, known as the “microbiome” or “microbiota.” “People have
this sense of wonderment about looking at themselves as a compilation of
microbial and human parts.”
Some equate these microbial inhabitants to a newly recognized organ.
Acquired beginning at birth, this mass of fellow travelers may help
steer normal development, molding immune systems and calibrating
fundamental metabolic functions such as energy storage and consumption.
There are even tantalizing clues they may help shape brain development,
“The ‘human supraorganism’ is one term coined to describe the human host
and all the attendant microorganisms,” said Lita M. Proctor, who leads
the Human Microbiome Project at the National Institutes of Health, which
is mapping this world. “There’s been a real revolution in thinking about
what that means.”
Investigators are trying to identify which organisms may truly be
beneficial “probiotics” that people could take to help their health.
Others are finding substances that people might ingest to nurture the
good bugs. Drugs may mimic the helpful compounds that these organisms
Doctors have even begun
to treat a host of
illnesses, including a sometimes-devastating gastrointestinal infection
called C. difficile, digestive system ailments such as
irritable bowel disorder, and even in a handful of cases
obesity and other afflictions, such as
Many advocates of the research urge caution, noting that most of the
work so far has involved laboratory animals or small numbers of
patients, many hypotheses remain far from proven and nothing has zero
“We have to be very careful in how we state what we know at the present
time versus what we think might be true at this point,” said
David A. Relman of Stanford University. “But it’s probably fair to say that our
indigenous communities are more diverse, more complex and more
intimately and intricately involved in our biology than we thought.”
Scientists have long known that many organisms evolved with humans and
perform vital functions, digesting food, extracting crucial nutrients,
fighting off disease-causing entities.
“We feed them and house them and they perform certain metabolic
functions for us that we have sort of contracted out,” said
Martin J. Blaser of the New York University School of Medicine. “The homeboys
protect their turf from invaders.”
But as microbiologists have begun
these colonies, it has
become clearer that they create carefully calibrated enterprises, with
unique combinations inhabiting individual crevices and identifiable
nuances from person to person.
“We just don’t pick up willy-nilly any microbe in the soil or air we
encounter,” Relman said.
in April that people generally seem to have
one of three basic combinations that may be as fundamentally important
as, say, blood type.
The five-year, $175 million U.S. Human Microbiome Project is assembling
an outline of a “healthy” microbiome by sampling the mouth, airway,
skin, gut and urogenital tract of 300 healthy adults, as well as
deciphering the genetic codes of 200 possibly key microbes.
Dozens of studies are also underway, including some that are repeatedly
swabbing kids and adults, including twins, to gain insights into why one
person gets tooth decay, asthma, ulcerative colitis or even cancer, and
“We’re using microbes as markers for the onset of various
progression of diseases,” said
Karen E. Nelson, who runs the J. Craig
Venter Institute in Rockville. “We think we’re going to have a huge
impact on health.”
Birth, development and disease
finding is that babies born through
apparently miss out on acquiring their mothers’ microbiota.
“The birth canal is very heavily colonized by bacteria,” said
Maria Dominguez-Bello, a University of Puerto Rico biologist who has been
studying microbiota around the world, including in
isolated tribes in
the Amazon. “We think that is not by chance.”
The rising number of C-section babies denied this colonization, along
with the casual use of
antibiotics and other factors that can alter the
microbiota, might help explain trends such as rising incidents of
food allergies caused by misfiring
To explore this,
researchers have begun following C-section babies, comparing their
microbiomes and their health with babies delivered through the birth
The interaction between the microbiota and the immune system may also
play a role in other diseases in adults, including those caused at least
in part by
chronic inflammation from hyperactive immune systems.
“Gut bacteria have figured out a way to network with our immune system
so it doesn’t attack them,” said
Mazmanian of the California
Institute of Technology.
The microbiota apparently sends signals that dampen the “inflammatory
response,” a crucial defense also believed to play a role in a variety
of diseases, including many forms of
cancer, the “metabolic syndrome”
caused by obesity, diabetes and
The theory is that one reason some people may be prone to these diseases
is that they are missing certain microbes. One anti-inflammatory
compound produced by a bacterium appears to cure the equivalent of
colitis and multiple sclerosis in mice, both of which are caused by
misfiring immune systems, Mazmanian found.
Role in obesity?
Similarly, studies indicate that gut dwellers secrete messengers to
cells lining the digestive tract to modulate key
hormones, such as leptin and
ghrelin, which are players in regulating
and a sense of fullness.
Pregnant women often take antibiotics, and young children can get
several rounds to fight ear and other infections, which can kill off
these companions. Farmers commonly add antibiotics to animal feed to
fatten their animals faster.
“We may have a generation of children growing up without the proper
bacteria to regulate their leptin and ghrelin,” Blaser said.
Obese people appear to have a distinctive mix of digestive bacteria that
make them prone to weight gain. Thin mice get fatter when their
microbiota is replaced with the microbes of obese animals.
“Our ancient microbiome is losing the equilibrium it used to have with
the host — us — and that has profound physiological consequences,” said Blaser, who published his concerns in an August paper in the journal
Microbes and the mind
Intriguing clues also are emerging about how microbes may affect the
brain. Manipulating gut microbiomes of mice influences their
activity, Swedish researchers reported in January in the
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
“This may have implications for new lines of thinking to address some of
psychiatric problems you see among humans,” said
professor of host-microbial interaction at the Karolinska Institute.
“Together with genetic susceptibility, this may influence what doctors
classify as autism or ADHD.”
In another experiment involving mice, a Canadian-Irish team reported in
August that bacteria in the gut appear to influence
brain chemistry, and
corresponding behaviors such as
depression, via the
“What we’ve shown is you change behavior as well as make changes in the
brain,” said John Bienenstock, director of the Brain-Body Institute at
McMaster University. “Now we have direct proof how that happens. That’s
why this is exciting.”
The human micro-zoo
Scientists have begun to find tantalizing clues
to the roles that different ecosystems of microbes play in keeping
people healthy and making them sick.
Read related article.
Sources: New York University, California
Institute of Technology, National Institutes of Health,
University of Maryland, CDC. Graphic:
The Washington Post.
Depiction of the human body and bacteria that predominate
The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a
National Institutes of Health initiative with the goal of
identifying and characterizing the
microorganisms which are found in association with both healthy and
microbial flora). Launched in 2008,
it is a five-year project, best characterized as a feasibility study,
and has a total budget of $115 million. The ultimate goal of this and
NIH-sponsored microbiome projects is to test if changes in the human
microbiome are associated with human health or disease. This topic is
currently not well-understood.
Important components of the Human Microbiome Project will be
culturing-independent methods of microbial
community characterization, such as
metagenomics (which provides a broad genetic perspective on a single
microbial community), as well as extensive whole-genome
sequencing (which provides a "deep" genetic perspective on certain
aspects of a given microbial community, i.e., of individual bacterial
species). The latter will serve as reference
sequences — 600 such sequences of individual bacterial isolates are
currently planned — for comparison purposes during subsequent
metagenomic analysis. The
microbiology of five body sites will be emphasized:
The project also financed deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA
sequences amplified by PCR from human subjects.
importance of HMP
cells found in association with humans may exceed the total number
of cells making up the
human body by a factor of ten-to-one. The total number of genes
associated with the human microbiome could exceed the total number of
human genes by a factor of
100-to-one. Many of these organisms have not been successfully
cultured, identified, or otherwise characterized. Organisms expected
to be found in the human microbiome, however, may generally be
bacteria (the majority), members of
single-celled eukaryotes as well as various
the latter including viruses that infect the cellular microbiome
bacteriophages, the viruses of bacteria).
"The HMP will address some of the most inspiring, vexing and
fundamental scientific questions today. Importantly, it also has the
potential to break down the artificial barriers between medical
microbiology and environmental microbiology. It is hoped that the
HMP will not only identify new ways to determine health and
predisposition to diseases but also define the parameters needed to
design, implement and monitor strategies for intentionally
manipulating the human microbiota, to optimize its performance in
the context of an individual's physiology."
The HMP has been described as "a logical conceptual and experimental
extension of the
Human Genome Project".
In 2007 the
Human Microbiome Project was listed on the
NIH Roadmap for Medical Research as one of the New Pathways to
Discovery. Organized characterization of the human microbiome is also
being done internationally under the auspices of the
International Human Microbiome Consortium. The
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, through the CIHR Institute
of Infection and Immunity, is leading the
Canadian Microbiome Initiative to develop a coordinated and focused
research effort to analyze and characterize the microbes that colonize
the human body and its potential alteration during chronic disease
distributed computing project
World Community Grid now
operates a human microbiome application, which can be run as background
software on home computers with World Community Grid installed.
Data Analysis and Coordination Center
Human Microbiome Project
The CIHR Canadian Microbiome Initiative
The International Human Microbiome Consortium
2008, Request for applications, Human Microbiome Demonstration
Projects (UH2/UH3) (May 22, 2008 = deadline for submission)
2008, Request for applications, Metagenomic Analyses of the Oral
2007, Article, "The Human Microbiome Project", as published in
2006, Lay summary of colon microbiome study (the
actual study: Gill et al., 2006)
2006 (or 2005), Proposal, Human Gut Microbiome Initiative (HGMI)
- Olivia Judson
Microbes ‘R’ Us New York Times 22 July 2009
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