HUMANITY NOW FIGHTS SUPERBUGS CREATED BY HUMANS... themselves simply with life-sciences ignorance-hubris-use greed.....
Posted by Champaklal Dajibhai Mistry on April 4, 2012


if you do not help yourself to know "everything" than needs to be known
"to make your today and tomorrow happier than yesterday"
then do not click on the hyperlinked /> ....they have always said in all cultures:
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER AND WEALTH"..has been proved a eternal Truth..)>
....But then the bugs simply has started "outsmarting" humans
by metamorphosing into "superbugs"
that cannot be killed by antibiotics....
How did the bugs do this:
...Simply because the humans
overused and/or wrongly used the antibiotics!!!!!!.....
....aha! usual....
....not really...
....The Creator is smarter than the humans...
who are trying very hard not to receive their sufferings of the sinful kARm committed
in their life-travels of about 160 trillion years in this universe
as per Creator's Life-sciences in a corpus of sNskRUt language texts called vED ....

Antibiotic resistance is a type of drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic. While a spontaneous or induced genetic mutation in bacteria may confer resistance to antimicrobial drugs, genes that confer resistance can be transferred between bacteria in a horizontal fashion by conjugation, transduction, or transformation. Thus a gene for antibiotic resistance which had evolved via natural selection may be shared. Evolutionary stress such as exposure to antibiotics then selects for the antibiotic resistant trait. Many antibiotic resistance genes reside on plasmids, facilitating their transfer. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multidrug resistant (MDR) or, informally, a superbug or super bacterium.

Genes for resistance to antibiotics, like the antibiotics themselves, are ancient.[1] However, the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections seen in clinical practice stems from antibiotic use both within human medicine and veterinary medicine. Any use of antibiotics can increase selective pressure in a population of bacteria to allow the resistant bacteria to thrive and the susceptible bacteria to die off. As resistance towards antibiotics becomes more common, a greater need for alternative treatments arises. However, despite a push for new antibiotic therapies there has been a continued decline in the number of newly approved drugs.[2][clarification needed] Antibiotic resistance therefore poses a significant problem......(Please continue learning of this preamble on Wikipedia Website by clicking here...)

you must know the following basics...

An antibacterial is a compound or substance that kills or slows down the growth of bacteria.[1] The term is often used synonymously with the term antibiotic(s); today, however, with increased knowledge of the causative agents of various infectious diseases, antibiotic(s) has come to denote a broader range of antimicrobial compounds, including antifungal and other compounds.[2]

The term antibiotic was coined by Selman Waksman in 1942 to describe any substance produced by a microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution.[3] This definition excluded substances that kill bacteria, but are not produced by microorganisms (such as gastric juices and hydrogen peroxide). It also excluded synthetic antibacterial compounds such as the sulfonamides. Many antibacterial compounds are relatively small molecules with a molecular weight of less than 2000 atomic mass units.

With advances in medicinal chemistry, most of today's antibacterials chemically are semisynthetic modifications of various natural compounds.[4] These include, for example, the beta-lactam antibacterials, which include the penicillins (produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium), the cephalosporins, and the carbapenems. Compounds that are still isolated from living organisms are the aminoglycosides, whereas other antibacterials—for example, the sulfonamides, the quinolones, and the oxazolidinones—are produced solely by chemical synthesis. In accordance with this, many antibacterial compounds are classified on the basis of chemical/biosynthetic origin into natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic. Another classification system is based on biological activity; in this classification, antibacterials are divided into two broad groups according to their biological effect on microorganisms: bactericidal agents kill bacteria, and bacteriostatic agents slow down or stall bacterial growth.....(please continue enlightening about this topic... with the reckoning that in a human body these bacterial outnumber the total human body cells by 10 to 1..... just click here to go to Wikipedia webpage...

...Now to understand today's news/life-knowledge summarized preceding the above two readings please click on the next line what the current thinking is about how to save the humanity from the ravages of the superbugs which the humans have created inadvertently through ignorance of comprehensive and holistic learning of the True Life-Sciences in vEDik sNskRUt texts which just about are going "extinct.....

keep scrolling down...
you never know what a treasure you may find...
unless you keep going...
Pills. - Pills. | Getty Images/iStockphoto
Getty Images/Stockphoto
....Antibiotic Life-saver Pills That Could be Useless Pills....
....Overuse/Wrong Use of antibiotics is causing resistance to antibiotics
that could undermine medical advances...
(From Canada's GGlobe and Mail: Tuesday, April 4, 2012: Editorial)
(hyperlinks provided by PVAF volunteers)

The greatest medical advance of the 20th century is now in doubt because of its own popularity. Antibiotics have saved the lives of millions of people suffering from tuberculosis, syphilis, meningitis and other illnesses since the bacteria-killing treatment was first introduced in the 1940s.

Today, unless concerted action is taken to curb antibiotic overuse and misuse, in humans and animals, the world may be heading for a post-antibiotic age.

Minor ailments such as strep throat and infected cuts could once again become fatal. And operations such as organ transplants and hip replacements could become impossible to perform.

The culprit is the wrong use of antibiotics that has allowed certain bacterial infections to survive and adapt, become more potent, dangerous and difficult to treat. br />
TThe rise of superbugs more powerful than antibiotics – a phenomenon known as antimicrobial resistance – is one of the biggest challenges in global health, says the World Health Organization.

“Some experts say we are moving back to the pre-antibiotic age,” says Margaret Chan, the WHO’s director general. “A post-antibiotic era means, in effect, an end to modern medicine as we know it. At a time of multiple calamities in the world, we cannot allow for the loss of essential antimicrobials, essential cures for many millions of people, to become the next global crisis.

It is a train wreck in slow motion – as University of Alberta medicine professor Lynora Saxinger puts it. A form of tuberculosis now exists that is resistant to most drugs; the mortality rate is 50 per cent.

An antibiotic-resistant strain of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease, has emerged in Japan, and has now appeared in Canada and the U.S. The Canadian Medical Association warns that, without urgent action, this form of gonorrhea could become untreatable.

Pharmaceutical companies are not developing new antibiotics to treat these superbugs, in part because of concern that irresponsible usage will render the new medicines ineffective before the investment in research and development can be recovered.

Treating healthy animals with antibiotics to boost production has led to resistance, which then spreads to humans through the food chain. While the use of growth hormones to increase milk production is prohibited in Canada and the European Union, it is approved for use in the U.S. and in many countries in Asia.

In the developing world, there are complex challenges. In countries such as India and Pakistan, antimicrobial resistance is spread through poor infection control and weak regulatory practices.

Antibiotics are sold over-the-counter. Patients self-diagnose, fail to finish a course of treatment, or overuse these medications. This creates the perfect environment for superbugs to develop and, in an age of mass immigration, global travel and medical tourism, surge overseas.

 “Drug-resistant pathogens are notorious globe-trotters. They travel well in infected air passengers and through global trade in food,” says Dr. Chan.

New Delhi etallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) – a superbug that is resistant to 15 widely used antibiotics – was identified in India four years ago. Last year, Toronto saw 25 cases.

DDespite better regulations and public education campaigns in the developed world, the misuse and overuse of antibiotics remains a problem in the West as well. In Canada and the U.S., many upper respiratory tract infections, including colds, sore throats and even some ear infections, should not be treated with antibiotics, yet often still are.

Patients should understand that taking an antibiotic unnecessarily increases the risk that they will become infected with a drug-resistant bacterium in the near future. br />
““It creates an environment that allows antibiotic-resistant bugs to thrive,” explains Dr. Donald Low, microbiologist-in-chief at the University Health Network in Toronto. Already in Canada, about 16 per cent of streptococcus pneumonia bugs (which cause pneumonia) are resistant to antibiotics.

Hospitals are also hot beds for antibiotic-resistant infections, thanks to the increased use of antibiotics, overcrowded conditions, and poor hygiene.

About 250,000 Canadians come down with life-threatening infections while in hospitals every year – one of the highest rates in the developed world according to the WHO – and as many as 12,000 die. br />
The most notorious antibiotic-related hospital illness is Clostridium-difficile, a bacterium that causes severe diarrhea. The infection spreads among patients whose natural gut flora have been wiped out by antibiotics.

AAn outbreak in the Niagara Health System in Ontario last year was a factor in the deaths of 21 patients; in 2003-04, C-difficile led to as many as 2,000 deaths in Quebec.

The world loves antibiotics – to death, or nearly so. A world without antibiotics seems unimaginable. But a world that loves them still has a chance to save them.

What are the dangers of misusing antibiotics? /strong> Infectious disease expert Dr. Lynora Saxinger of the University of Alberta will take your questions at 2:30 p.m. EST,April 4, 2012

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with today's news/Life-Knowledge
which creates future of life-scares.....
.....we pray as follows...
super bug end 300x285 The Super Bug   Has The Time Bomb Been Defused?
click and read about fighting superbugs

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