|HUMANITY NOW FIGHTS SUPERBUGS CREATED BY HUMANS... themselves simply with life-sciences ignorance-hubris-use greed..... |
Posted by Champaklal Dajibhai Mistry on April 4, 2012
if you do not help yourself to know "everything" than needs to be known
"to make your today and tomorrow happier
then do not click on the hyperlinked words....br />
....they have always said in all cultures:
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER AND WEALTH"..has
been proved a eternal Truth..)
......HUAMANITY CREATED ANTIBIOTICS
TO SAVE ITSELF FROM SUFFERING/DEATH
FROM INFECTIOUS DISEASES INFLICTED
BY FELLOW BACTERIAL CREATIONS.....
....But then the bugs simply has started "outsmarting" humans
by metamorphosing into "superbugs"
that cannot be killed by antibiotics....
How did the bugs
...Simply because the humans
overused and/or wrongly used the antibiotics!!!!!!.....
....The Creator is smarter than the
who are trying very hard not to receive their sufferings of the sinful
in their life-travels of about 160 trillion years in this universe
as per Creator's Life-sciences in a corpus of
sNskRUt language texts called
SHARING OF LIFE-SCINECES KNOWLEDGE
THAT COULD BE A LIFE-SAVER FOR
YOUR TODAY AND TOMORROW ....
Antibiotic resistance is a type of
drug resistance where a
microorganism is able to survive exposure to an
antibiotic. While a spontaneous or induced genetic mutation in
bacteria may confer resistance to antimicrobial drugs,
confer resistance can be
transferred between bacteria in a horizontal fashion by
transformation. Thus a gene for antibiotic resistance which had
natural selection may be shared. Evolutionary stress such as
exposure to antibiotics then selects for the antibiotic resistant trait.
Many antibiotic resistance genes reside on
plasmids, facilitating their transfer. If a bacterium carries
several resistance genes, it is called multidrug resistant (MDR) or,
informally, a superbug or super bacterium.
Genes for resistance to antibiotics, like the antibiotics themselves,
However, the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial
infections seen in clinical practice stems from antibiotic use both
within human medicine and
veterinary medicine. Any use of antibiotics can increase
selective pressure in a population of bacteria to allow the
resistant bacteria to thrive and the susceptible bacteria to die off. As
resistance towards antibiotics becomes more common, a greater need for
alternative treatments arises. However, despite a push for new
antibiotic therapies there has been a continued decline in the number of
newly approved drugs. Antibiotic resistance therefore poses a
significant problem......(Please continue learning of this preamble on
Wikipedia Website by clicking
TO UNDERSTAND THE ABOVE....
you must know the following basics...
An antibacterial is a compound or substance that kills or
slows down the growth of
The term is often used
synonymously with the term antibiotic(s); today, however,
with increased knowledge of the causative agents of various infectious
diseases, antibiotic(s) has come to denote a broader range of
antimicrobial compounds, including
antifungal and other compounds.
The term antibiotic was coined by
Selman Waksman in 1942 to describe any substance produced by a
microorganism that is
antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution.
This definition excluded substances that kill bacteria, but are not
produced by microorganisms (such as
gastric juices and
hydrogen peroxide). It also excluded
synthetic antibacterial compounds such as the
sulfonamides. Many antibacterial compounds are relatively
small molecules with a
molecular weight of less than 2000
atomic mass units.
With advances in
medicinal chemistry, most of today's antibacterials chemically are
semisynthetic modifications of various natural compounds.
These include, for example, the
beta-lactam antibacterials, which include the
penicillins (produced by fungi in the genus
cephalosporins, and the
carbapenems. Compounds that are still isolated from living organisms
aminoglycosides, whereas other antibacterials—for example, the
quinolones, and the
oxazolidinones—are produced solely by chemical synthesis. In
accordance with this, many antibacterial compounds are classified on the
basis of chemical/biosynthetic
origin into natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic. Another
classification system is based on biological activity; in this
classification, antibacterials are divided into two broad groups
according to their biological effect on microorganisms:
bactericidal agents kill bacteria, and
bacteriostatic agents slow down or stall bacterial growth.....(please
continue enlightening about this topic... with the reckoning that in a
human body these bacterial outnumber the total human body cells by 10 to
1..... just click
to go to Wikipedia webpage...
|...Now to understand today's news/life-knowledge summarized
preceding the above two readings please click on the next line what the
current thinking is about how to save the humanity from the ravages of
the superbugs which the humans have created inadvertently through
ignorance of comprehensive and holistic learning of the True
Life-Sciences in vEDik sNskRUt texts which just about are going
DOING GOOD FOR TODAY...
keep scrolling down...
you never know what a treasure you may
unless you keep going...
....Antibiotic Life-saver Pills That Could be Useless Pills....
THE REVENGE OF MCIROBES GONE SUPERBUGS
AGAINST ANTIBIOTICS AND HUMANS
....Overuse/Wrong Use of antibiotics is causing resistance to
that could undermine medical advances...
GGlobe and Mail:
Tuesday, April 4, 2012: Editorial)
(hyperlinks provided by PVAF volunteers)
The greatest medical advance of the 20th century is now in doubt because
of its own popularity.
Antibiotics have saved the lives of millions of
people suffering from
meningitis and other
illnesses since the
bacteria-killing treatment was first introduced in
Today, unless concerted action is taken to curb antibiotic
misuse, in humans and animals, the world may be heading for a
Minor ailments such as strep throat and infected cuts could once again
become fatal. And operations such as organ transplants and
replacements could become impossible to perform.
The culprit is the wrong use of antibiotics that has allowed certain
bacterial infections to survive and adapt, become more potent, dangerous
and difficult to treat. br />
TThe rise of superbugs more powerful than antibiotics – a phenomenon
known as antimicrobial resistance – is one of the biggest challenges in
global health, says the
World Health Organization.
“Some experts say we are moving back to the pre-antibiotic age,” says
Margaret Chan, the WHO’s director general. “A post-antibiotic era means,
in effect, an end to
modern medicine as we know it.
At a time of
multiple calamities in the world, we cannot allow for the loss of
essential antimicrobials, essential cures for many millions of people,
to become the next global crisis.”
It is a train wreck in slow motion – as University of Alberta medicine
professor Lynora Saxinger puts it. A form of tuberculosis now exists
that is resistant to most drugs; the mortality rate is 50 per cent.
An antibiotic-resistant strain of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted
disease, has emerged in Japan, and has now appeared in Canada and the
U.S. The Canadian Medical Association warns that, without urgent action,
this form of gonorrhea could become untreatable.
Pharmaceutical companies are not developing new antibiotics to treat
these superbugs, in part because of concern that irresponsible usage
will render the new medicines ineffective
before the investment in
research and development can be recovered.
Treating healthy animals with antibiotics to boost production has led to
resistance, which then spreads to humans through the food chain. While
the use of growth hormones to increase milk production is prohibited in
Canada and the European Union, it is approved for use in the U.S. and in
many countries in Asia.
In the developing world, there are complex challenges. In countries such
as India and Pakistan, antimicrobial resistance is spread through poor
infection control and weak regulatory practices.
Antibiotics are sold over-the-counter. Patients self-diagnose, fail to
finish a course of treatment, or overuse these medications. This creates
the perfect environment for superbugs to develop and, in an age of mass
immigration, global travel and medical tourism, surge overseas.
“Drug-resistant pathogens are notorious globe-trotters. They travel well
in infected air passengers and through global trade in food,” says Dr.
New Delhi etallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) – a superbug that is resistant
to 15 widely used antibiotics – was identified in India four years ago.
Last year, Toronto saw 25 cases.
DDespite better regulations and public education campaigns in the
developed world, the misuse and overuse of antibiotics remains a problem
in the West as well. In Canada and the U.S., many upper respiratory
tract infections, including colds, sore throats and even some ear
infections, should not be treated with antibiotics, yet often still are.
Patients should understand that taking an antibiotic unnecessarily
increases the risk that they will become infected with a drug-resistant
bacterium in the near future. br />
““It creates an environment that allows antibiotic-resistant bugs to
thrive,” explains Dr. Donald Low, microbiologist-in-chief at the
University Health Network in Toronto. Already in Canada, about 16 per
cent of streptococcus pneumonia bugs (which cause pneumonia) are
resistant to antibiotics.
Hospitals are also hot beds for antibiotic-resistant infections, thanks
to the increased use of antibiotics, overcrowded conditions, and poor
About 250,000 Canadians come down with life-threatening infections while
in hospitals every year – one of the highest rates in the developed
world according to the WHO – and as many as 12,000 die. br />
The most notorious antibiotic-related hospital illness is Clostridium-difficile,
a bacterium that causes severe diarrhea. The infection spreads among
patients whose natural gut flora have been wiped out by antibiotics.
AAn outbreak in the Niagara Health System in Ontario last year was a
factor in the deaths of 21 patients; in 2003-04, C-difficile led to as
many as 2,000 deaths in Quebec.
The world loves antibiotics – to death, or nearly so.
A world without
antibiotics seems unimaginable. But a world that loves them still has a
chance to save them.
What are the dangers of misusing antibiotics? /strong>
Infectious disease expert Dr. Lynora Saxinger of the University of
will take your questions at 2:30 p.m. EST,April 4, 2012
AS IS THE TRADITION AT PVAF.....
with today's news/Life-Knowledge
which creates future of life-scares.....
.....we pray as follows...
....WITH THE EVOLVING LIFE-SCIENCES KNOWLEDGE...of course!
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