Posted by Champaklal Dajibhai Mistry on August 27, 2003


First we will continue the previous article "veDik MATHEMATICS - What does it mean" to prove the existence of mathematics in the veDik lifestyle of peoples on this planet earth. And then we will endeavour to find mathematics in the veD texts which exists and is somewhat understood by mankind.....

Please click on the next line to continue reading......the history of mathematics from Harappan culture of India to Greeks to Arabs and to Europe....

Mathematics has been traced to exist as a knowledge among peoples of Indus Valley Civilization with Harappan culture as has been proved by continuing archeological excavations in lands presently known as bhaart or India and Pakistan. Indus Valley Civilization is acknowledged as the oldest civilization on this planet earth.  The continuing archeological research indicates that this civilization included well planned and engineered cities, towns and villages  integrated with extensive Harappan urban and  rural cultures around dating back to at least 6500 BC and continued to dominate the region for at least 700 years, from 2600 to 1900 B.C. It was only in the 1920's that the buried cities and villages of the Indus valley were recognized by archaeologists as representing an undiscovered civilization. The buildings, artifacts and special seals found in Harappan culture sites indicates that the culture practiced veDik lifestyles. This Harappan culture of veDik lifestyle is proved to have extended to east Europe as proved by archeological research in areas around present day Turkey. The Babylonians and Egyptians who have an history dating back to 3500 BC also has evidence of interaction with Harappan culture. The war of mHaa-bhaart was fought around 5000 years ago (3000 BC) and included the entire lands of Asia, Africa and Europe as can be deduced from the description of the armies of different peoples who took part in the 18-day war which killed about 1.7 billion peoples. In all these different lands the history of mathematics is traced by the following events:

  •  circa 3000 BC: The Babylonians of ancient Mesopotamia and the ancient Egyptians left the earliest records of organized mathematics. Well-preserved Babylonian clay tablets show wedge-shaped writing known as cuneiform. The earliest tablets date from about 3000 BC. Arithmetic and algebra dominated their mathematics for commerce to exchange of money and merchandise, to compute simple and compound interest, to calculate taxes, and to allocate shares of a harvest to the state, temple, and farmer. The building of canals, granaries, and other public works also required using arithmetic and geometry. Calendar reckoning, used to determine the times for planting and for religious events, was another important application of mathematics.
  • To circa 31 BC: The Greeks adopted elements of mathematics from the Babylonians and the Egyptians in circa 600 BC with through the development of mathematics by Thales and Pythagoras. Greek mathematicians invented abstract mathematics based on deductive proof based on logical, axioms and proofs of the mathematical concepts. The mathematics that had existed before their time was a collection of conclusions based on observation of the nature and natural phenomenon. The development of Greek mathematic ended in 31 BC with Roman conquest of Egypt, the last of Greek Alexander’s kingdoms.
  • To circa 476 AD: Nothing mathematically significant was accomplished by the Romans. The Roman numeration system was based on Roman numerals, which were cumbersome for calculation. Roman orator Cicero boasted that the Romans were not dreamers like the Greeks but applied their study of mathematics to the useful.
  • TO circa 800 AD: After the decline of Greece and Rome, mathematics flourished in India.  Mathematics in India was largely a tool for astronomy, yet Indian mathematicians discovered a number of important concepts.  The current Western  numeration system, for example, is based on the Indian system which was conveyed to Western world by Arabs and is generally known as the Hindu-Arabic system.

    The system of numbers in current use with each number having an absolute value and a place value (units, tens, hundreds, and so forth) originated in India. Indian Mathematicians were the first to recognize zero as both an integer and a placeholder. 

    Mathematics existed in veDik lifestyle as is shown in science of jyotiSH which is one of the 6 veDNg meaning limbs of veD. veD contains all the sciences of knowledge of creation and life. As per NaarD puraaAN, Chapter 54 the science of jyotiSH was relayed by pRjaapti BRH`maao,  to Daevtaaoo,  RUSHioo and munioo for the use by humans for the fulfillment of their duties as per their DHARmo. The science of jyotiSH was expounded by in 400,000 s`lok (aphorisms in verse forms) which are divided into 3 categories:
                    1.    gNit = mathematics and astronomy
                    2.    jaatk = horoscopy
                    3.    sMhitaa = astrology

    The above means that knowledge of mathematics is encoded in all creations but is manifested as knowledge in individual creations as per the needs of the individual creation in the "space-time continuum" and as warranted by the occurrence of intersections of "world lines" as per the relativity theory developed by Albert Einstein in his science discoveries of 1905 to 1915.   To date only parts of veD texts have been deciphered with the SNskrut grammar knowledge developed by pANiANi in circa 500 BC. And even with this limited deciphering of the veDik texts in sNskrut language the concepts in these texts are still very hard to understand. But the veD texts deciphered to date has numbers everywhere explaining space in multiple dimensions, time in various reckonings as per the location in space of the domains of various existences of various creations, quantities of all materials in creation and also natural processes in the universe for which the veD text is meant for. We will share with each other more knowledge on this after knowing the history of development of mathematics as humans know in 2000 AD. 

    • ( pRjaapti BRH`maa, per veD, is the creator, as empowered by creator BRH`m, of all that exists in a universe. Daevtaao are all entities who are which are manifestations of creator BRH`m's powers and forces in nature).  RUSHio and munio are sages who were versed in veD and whose function is to look after the welfare of all creations through their powers obtained through tps and yGN. tps means totally focused meditation on creator BRH`m  resulting in the meditative mode called smaaDHi whereby the meditator is blessed by creator BRH`m with the powers to be sub-creator and/or sub-sustainer and/or sub-re-creator in birth-death cycles called sNsaar in BRH'm's stead. yGN is a process and a rite prescribed in veD in which oblation is offered to creator BRH`m or any of His manifestations. It is stated in veD that tps and yGN is what creates, sustains and recycles the created through a process called ly a universe and everything in that universe. DHARm is the laws, rules and regulations in nature and among the created that empowers the harmonious co-existence of all created in a universe.)

    It is not known when the Indian numeration system as is in current existence around the world was developed.  But digits similar to the Arabic numerals used today have been found in a Hindu temple built about 250 BC.

    In circa 500 AD, Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata expounded beyond the Greek mathematician in his use of fractions as opposed to whole numbers to solve indeterminate equations (equations that have no unique solutions). The mathematical development by Aryabhata has already been outlined in the previous serial titled "veDik MATHEMATICS - What does it mean".

    In circa 630 AD Indian mathematician Brahmagupta expounded the concept of  negative numbers in mathematics for the first time in the history of current mathematics. He presented rules for them in terms of fortunes (positive numbers) and debts (negative numbers). Brahmagupta’s understanding of numbers exceeded that of other mathematicians of the time. He also made full use of the place system in existence in India in his method of multiplication. Brahmagupta  wrote two treaties on mathematics and astronomy dealing with topics such as eclipses, risings and settings, and conjunctions of the planets with each other and with fixed stars.

    In circa 900 AD, Jain mathematician Mahavira stated rules for operations with zero. 

    In circa 1200 AD Bhaskara supplied the correct answer for division by zero as well as rules for operating with irrational numbers. Bhaskara wrote six treaties  on mathematics, including Lilavati meaning The Beautiful, which summarized mathematical knowledge existing in India up to his time, and Karanakutuhala, meaning “Calculation of Astronomical Wonders.”

  • 800 AD TO 1400:  In 800 AD, Indian mathematics reached Baghdaad, a major early center of Islam culture. Mathematical masterpieces of Indians and those of the Greeks were translated into Arabic in centers of Islamic learning, where mathematical discoveries continued during the period known in the West as the Middle Ages.

    In circa 800 AD Arab mathematician al-Khwaarizmī wrote a systematic introduction to algebra called  Kitaab al-jabr w’al Muqabalah meaning Book of Restoring and Balancing. The English word algebra comes from al-jabr in the title of this mathematical treatise. Al-Khwaarizmī’s algebra was founded on Brahmagupta’s work, which he duly credited, and showed the influence of Babylonian and Greek mathematics as well. A 12th-century Latin translation of al-Khwaarizmī’s treatise was crucial for the later development of algebra in Europe. Al-Khwaarizmī’s name is the source of the word algorithm.

    In  900 AD Arab scholars completed the acquiring of all Indian and Greek mathematics in existence at that time and began further development.

    From 900 AD to 1000 AD Alhazen, who was an outstanding Arab scientist, developed algebraic solutions of quadratic and cubic equations. Al-Karaji continued development of the algebra of polynomials (mathematical expressions that are the sum of a number of terms) of al-Khwaarizmī with polynomials with an infinite number of terms. Geometers such as Ibrahim ibn Sinan continued Archimedes’s investigations of areas and volumes, and Kamal al-Din and others applied the theory of conic sections to solve problems in optics.

    In circa 1100 AD, Persian mathematician Omar Khayyam and other Arab mathematicians, solved certain cubic equations geometrically by using conic sections. Arab astronomers contributed the tangent and cotangent to trigonometry. 

    In circa 1200, Arab astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi created the mathematical disciplines of plane and spherical trigonometry and separated trigonometry as a stand-alone from astronomy. Arab mathematicians made important discoveries in the theory of numbers and also developed a variety of numerical methods for solving equations.

    The Arab mathematicians through translations in Arabic preserved many of the Greek mathematics in existence to 1500 AD when civilization in Europe was in stagnation after the destruction of Roman empire. Europe re-acquired much of this translated Greek mathematics along with the Indian mathematics when mathematics was re-translated into Latin which was the written language of educated Europeans starting sometime 1100 AD.

With the blessing of creator BRH`m we will continue reviewing the history of the development of mathematics spearheaded in Europe in the Enlightenment Age (from circa 1500 AD) after the completion of Middle Ages.  Through mathematics Europe started making a fast headway in understanding the veD = SCIENCES OF CREATION AND LIFE in the universe the Europeans and the rest of humankind knew.... 

om tt bRH`myae nmH......

There are 1 additional comments.

#1 Posted by siraj on 11/30/2005
good books


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