Posted by Champaklal Dajibhai Mistry on June 29, 2004


Humans on the current times on this planet earth are developing the study jyotish-shaasTR = astronomy, astrology and mathematics associated with both..... jyotish-shaasTR is one of the six veDNg meaning appendix to 4-part veD...each veDNg deals with a specific science contained in veD but which applies to all of 4-part veD..... The word veD is a sNskrut language word which means SCIENCES OF CREATION AND LIFE....sciences which creates, sustains and cyclically de-creates to re-create everything in infinite ruup (forms) and naam (names) in the infinite universes created by creator bRH`m......

And tomorrow after a 7 year travel of 930 million miles from Earth, Cassini spacecraft from earth will let itself be captured by Saturn's gravity and thus Cassini will become an addition to 31 known moons orbiting Saturn......To learn about this amazing achievements of humanity on planet earth who still cannot feed all of its members 3 square meals a day....please click on the following red highlite NASA: SATURN CASSINI-HUYGENS web site to see and learn a lot more about Saturn now and in the knowledge from Cassini in a four-year, 76-orbit tour of Saturn and its rings and 31 moons......

PVAF invites YOU to share your knowledge about how shni-gRH negatively affects the well-being of all creations and how to appease the negative veD there is genesis described as to how shni-gRH was created to have a negative effect on all creations....To share your knowledge just click on POST A COMMENT in the header of this news posting and write away.....

To continue reading about this exciting milestone in the current human history and some stats on this journey to Saturn please click on the next line.....


  • Travel from Earth to Saturn: 7-year, 2.2 billion-mile (3.5 billion-kilometer) journey. Launched on Oct. 15, 1997, launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA.
  • Cost of Travel: US $3.3 billion and counting...
  • Spacecraft Cassini: 22 feet (6.7 meters) long, 13.1 feet (4 meters) wide and weighed nearly 12,600 pounds (5,700 kilograms) loaded with fuel and the probe. Too far from the sun to rely on solar panels, it uses plutonium-fueled radioactive generators to provide electricity.
  • Huygens attached to Cassini and which will land on Titan (largest moon of Saturn): under 9 feet (2.75 meters) in diameter and weighing 705 pounds (320 kilograms), its six instruments will investigate Titan’s atmosphere and then its surface, if it survives the impact of landing after a 2˝-hour descent by parachute.
  • Time to communicate with Cassini from Earth: Saturn will be some 930 million miles from Earth when Cassini arrives. Radio signals will take 84 minutes to travel each way, so the spacecraft will enter orbit on autopilot. Hugen will radio data back to Cassini up to a maximum of 30 minutes after touchdown. By then, either its batteries will have failed or Cassini will have passed over Titan’s horizon.
  • Project Scientists: 260 scientists have spent 15 years on planning, designing and running the mission.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The planet Saturn
Click image for description
Orbital characteristics
Mean radius 1,426,725,400 km
Eccentricity 0.05415060
Orbital period 10746.940 days
(29.423519 Julian years)
Synodic period 378.1 days
Avg. Orbital Speed 9.6724 km/s
Inclination 2.48446°
Number of satellites 30
Physical characteristics
Equatorial diameter 120,536 km
Surface area 4.38×1010 km2
Mass 5.688×1026 kg
Mean density 0.69 g/cm3
Equatorial gravity 8.96 m/s2,
or 0.914 gee
Rotation period
10h 13m 59s
Rotation period
10h 39m 25s
Axial tilt 26.73°
Albedo 0.47
Escape Speed 35.49 km/s
Avg. Cloudtop temp. 93K
Surface temp.
min mean max
82K 143K N/A K
Atmospheric characteristics
Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa
Hydrogen >93%
Helium >5%
Methane 0.2%
Water vapor 0.1%
Ammonia 0.01%
Ethane 0.0005%
Phosphine 0.0001%

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. It is a gas giant, the second-largest planet in the solar system after Jupiter. It was named after the Roman god Saturn.

Table of contents [hide]

Physical characteristics

Saturn's shape is visibly flattened at the poles and bulging at the equator (an oblate spheroid); its equatorial and polar diameters vary by almost 10% (120,536 km vs. 108,728 km). This is the result of its rapid rotation and fluid state. The other gas planets are also oblate, but not so much so. Saturn is also the least dense of the Solar System's planets with an average specific density of 0.69, significantly less than water. This is only an average value, however; Saturn's upper atmosphere is less dense and its core is considerably more dense than water.

Saturn's interior is similar to Jupiter's, having a rocky core at the center, a liquid metallic hydrogen layer above that, and a molecular hydrogen layer above that. Traces of various ices are also present. Saturn has a very hot interior, reaching 12000 K at the core, and it radiates more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. Most of the extra energy is generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism (slow gravitational compression), but this alone may not be sufficient to explain Saturn's heat production. An additional proposed mechanism by which Saturn may generate some of its heat is the "raining out" of droplets of helium deep in Saturn's interior, the droplets of helium releasing heat by friction as they fall down through the lighter hydrogen.

Saturn's atmosphere exhibits a banded pattern similar to Jupiter's, but Saturn's bands are much fainter and they're also much wider near the equator. Saturn's cloud patterns were not observed until the Voyager flybys. Since then, however, Earth-based telescopy has improved to the point where regular observations can be made. Saturn exhibits long-lived ovals and other features common on Jupiter; in 1990 the Hubble Space Telescope observed an enormous white cloud near Saturn's equator which was not present during the Voyager encounters and in 1994 another, smaller storm was observed.


Saturn's rings

Saturn is probably best known for its famous planetary rings. They were first observed by Galileo Galilei in 1610 with his telescope, but he clearly did not know what to make of it. He wrote to the Grand Duke of Tuscany that "Saturn is not alone but is composed of three, which almost touch one another and never move nor change with respect to one another. They are arranged in a line parallel to the zodiac, and the middle one (Saturn itself) is about three times the size of the lateral ones (actually the edges of the rings)." He also described Saturn as having "ears." In 1612 the plane of the rings was oriented directly at the Earth and the rings appeared to vanish, and then in 1613 they reappeared again, further confusing Galileo.

The riddle of the rings was not solved until 1655 by Christiaan Huygens, using a telescope much more powerful than the ones available to Galileo in his time. Leo Allatius, a theologian at the time, suggested that the ring may be the foreskin of Jesus Christ, ascended into the heavens.

In 1675 Giovanni Cassini determined that Saturn's ring was actually composed of multiple smaller rings with gaps between them; the largest of these gaps was later named the Cassini Division.

The rings can be viewed using a quite modest modern telescope or with a good pair of binoculars. They are composed of silica rock, iron oxide, and ice particles ranging in size from specks of dust to the size of a small automobile. There are two main theories regarding the origin of Saturn's rings. One theory, originally proposed by Edouard Roche in the 19th century, is that the rings were once a moon of Saturn whose orbit decayed until it came close enough to be ripped apart by tidal forces. A variation of this theory is that the moon disintegrated after being struck by a large comet or asteroid. The second theory is that the rings were never part of a moon, but are instead left over from the original nebular material that Saturn formed out of. This theory is not widely accepted today, since Saturn's rings are thought to be unstable over periods of millions of years and therefore of relatively recent origin.


The dark side of the rings

Saturn's rings have two sides, sunward and backside, that look very different, although from Earth we do not get to appreciate this because the Earth cannot view Saturn from a direction that is very far from the sun.

The NASA Cassini spacecraft will soon treat us with a view we have not seen in 25 years - the backside of the rings.

Compare images from Cassini this March, to a view from the Pioneer 11 spacecraft:

295px 345px
Pioneer 11 spacecraft: September 1, 1979
Backlit rings
The thickest parts of the ring are almost invisible on the backlit view.
Cassini spacecraft: March 27, 2004
Frontlit rings
Notice both the shadow of Saturn on the ring, and the shadow of the ring onto the planet.

There will be plenty of marvelous images coming soon, showing the dance of light on Saturn, the rings, the moons, and their shadows.


Exploration of Saturn

Saturn was first visited by Pioneer 11 in 1979 and the following two years by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The Cassini-Huygens orbiter and probe, now on its way, will arrive in 2004 to study Saturn and its moon Titan. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft is expected to arrive at Saturn on July 1, 2004; on that day, the spacecraft will execute a complicated maneuver called SOI (Saturn Orbit Insertion). Additional details on the mission can be found As Cassini approaches Saturn, the Program will release the "latest" images every Friday at

A Hubble Space Telescope image, captured in October 1996 shows Saturn's rings from just past edge-on
A Hubble Space Telescope image, captured in October 1996 shows Saturn's rings from just past edge-on

Saturn's moons

Main article: Saturn's natural satellites

Saturn has a large number of moons, 30 of which have names; the precise figure is uncertain as there are many objects in orbit around the planet with a wide range of sizes. (Nature vol. 412, p.163-166). Especially noteworthy is Titan, the only moon in the solar system with a dense atmosphere.


Best viewing of Saturn

Saturn Oppositions : 2001-2029
Saturn Oppositions : 2001-2029

Saturn and its rings are best seen when the planet is at or near opposition (the configuration of a planet when it is at an elongation of 180° and thus appears opposite the Sun in the sky.)

Saturn's Opposition Periods 2001-2005
Date of Opposition Distance to Earth (AU) Angular diameter
December 3, 2001 8.08 20.6 arcsec
December 17, 2002 8.05 20.7 arcsec
December 31, 2003 8.05 20.7 arcsec
January 13, 2005 8.08 20.6 arcsec

External link










Updated: 2:49 p.m. ET June 29, 2004PASADENA, Calif. - Two decades and  in the making, an international exploration of Saturn begins this week when a spacecraft slips through a gap in the planet’s shimmering rings and arcs into orbit.

After a , the Cassini spacecraft will fire its engine Wednesday night to slow down, allowing itself to be captured by Saturn’s gravity. The maneuver will inaugurate a four-year, 76-orbit tour of the giant planet and some of its 31 known moons, including huge Titan.

To scientists, Saturn and its rings are a model of the disk of gas and dust that initially surrounded the sun, and they hope the mission offers important clues about how the planets formed.

Shortly after entering orbit, Cassini will act on its best chance to photograph the rings that have entranced astronomers for centuries.

“We’ll never be that close to the rings as immediately after the insertion,” said Charles Elachi, director of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and team leader for Cassini’s radar instrument.

Cassini, laden with a dozen instruments, also carries a probe named Huygens that will be launched into the murky atmosphere of Titan.

The frozen moon intrigues scientists because it may have many of the chemical compounds that existed on Earth before life began.

Joint NASA-Italian-European project
Named for 17th century Saturn observers Jean Dominique Cassini and Christiaan Huygens, the joint project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency dates back to proposals made in 1982.

Many of the project’s , building Cassini at JPL in Pasadena and getting the spacecraft out to Saturn.

“We received our letters of acceptance of being team leaders or team members almost  ago,” Elachi noted at a briefing this month. “So as you could imagine my colleagues have great anticipation.”

The show has already begun...

Cassini has already been sending data to Earth, including a wealth of information and sharp images from a close flyby of Saturn’s strange, battered old moon Phoebe.

Cassini’s spectrometer picked up signs of water-bearing minerals, carbon dioxide and organic material on Phoebe’s heavily cratered surface.

“It’s a great curtain raiser for the Saturn show that’s about to start at the end of the month,” JPL imaging team member Torrence Johnson said.

Cassini is

People who worried that an accident could release nuclear material protested Cassini’s . There was more concern when Cassini made a 1999 Earth flyby, but all went as planned.

What  will do
The wok-shaped Huygens probe, developed by the European Space Agency, will be released from Cassini in December and will enter Titan’s atmosphere in January.

• Mission to Titan: June 3: Huygens project scientist Jean-Pierre Lebreton describes the European probe's mission to Titan.

It may not find a hard surface, however, and instead splash down into liquid methane or ethane, which would quickly shut down the probe.

In 2000, mission officials discovered a problem that would have prevented Cassini from receiving most of that data. The design had not accounted for the Doppler effect, which will change the frequency of the transmissions as Huygens falls through the atmosphere.

Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA’s Huygens project manager, assured reporters earlier this month that the problem was fixed. But he said testing would continue until scientists were sure.

Implications for Earth's history
According to Elachi, some scientists believe Titan has a “pre-biotic” environment in which there is organic, or carbon-based, chemistry, but the surface temperature of minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit is inhospitable to life.

“In a sense it will give us a past picture of our own planet before biology got started,” he said.


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